The eukaryotic guanine-nucleotide exchange factor commonly called elongation factor-1βγδ (EF-1βγδ), comprises four different subunits including valyl-tRNA synthetase (EF-1βγδ/ValRS). The factor is multiply-phosphorylated by three different protein kinases, protein kinase C, casein kinase II and cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). EF-1βγδ/ValRS is organized as a macromolecular complex for which we propose a new structural model. Evidence that EF-1βγδ/ValRS is a sophisticated supramolecular complex containing many phosphorylation sites, makes it a potential regulator of any of the functions of its partner EF-1α, not only involved in protein synthesis elongation, but also in many other cellular functions.

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