We have investigated the putative role of nitric oxide (NO) as a modular of islet hormone release, when stimulated by the muscarinic receptor agonist–phospholipase C activator, carbachol, with special regard to whether the IP3-Ca2+ or the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C messenger systems might be involved. It was observed that the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) markedly potentiated insulin release and modestly inhibited glucagon release induced by carbachol. Similarly, insulin release induced by the phorbol ester TPA (protein kinase C activator) was markedly potentiated. Glucagon release, however, was unaffected. Dynamic perifusion experiments with 45C2+-loaded islets revealed that the inhibitory action of L-NAME on carbachol-stimulated NO-production was reflected in a rapid and sustained increase in insulin secretion above carbachol controls, whereas the 45Ca2+-efflux pattern was similar in both groups with the exception of a slight elevation of 45C2+ in the L-NAME-carbachol group during the latter part of the perifusion. No difference in either insulin release or 45Ca2+-efflux pattern between the carbachol group and L-NAME-carbachol group was seen in another series of experiments with identical design but performed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. However, it should be noted that in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ both 45Ca2+-efflux and, especially, insulin release were greatly reduced in comparison with experiments in normal Ca2+. Further, in the presence of diazoxide, a potent K+ATP-channel opener, plus a depolarizing concentration of K+ the NOS-inhibitor L-NAME still markedly potentiated carbachol-induced insulin release and inhibited glucagon release. The enantiomer D-NAME, which is devoid of NOS-inhibitory properties, did not affect carbachol-induced hormone release. TPA-induced hormone release in depolarized islets was not affected by either L-NAME or D-NAME. The pharmacological intracellular NO donor hydroxylamine dose-dependently inhibited insulin release stimulated by TPA. Furthermore, a series of perifusion experiments revealed that hydroxylamine greatly inhibited carbachol-induced insulin release without affecting the 45Ca2+-efflux pattern. In summary, our results suggest that the inhibitory effect of NO on carbachol-induced insulin release is not to any significant extent exerted on the IP3-Ca2+ messenger system but rather through S-nitrosylation of critical thiol-residues in protein kinase C and/or other secretion-regulatory thiol groups. In contrast, the stimulating action of NO on carbachol-induced glucagon release was, at least partially, connected to the IP3-Ca2+ messenger system. The main effects of NO on both insulin and glucagon release induced by carbachol were apparently exerted independently of membrane depolarization events.
Evidence for Nitric Oxide Mediated Effects on Islet Hormone Secretory Phospholipase C Signal Transduction Mechanisms
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Björn Åkesson, Ingmar Lundquist; Evidence for Nitric Oxide Mediated Effects on Islet Hormone Secretory Phospholipase C Signal Transduction Mechanisms. Biosci Rep 1 August 1998; 18 (4): 199–213. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020152830656
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