Serotonin (5-HT) is an ancient chemical that plays a crucial functional role in almost every living organism. It regulates platelet aggregation, activation of immune cells, and contraction of stomach and intestinal muscles. In addition, serotonin acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and the peripheral nervous system. These activities are initiated by the binding of serotonin to 15 or more receptors that are pharmacologically classified into seven groups, 5-HT1 through 5-HT7. Each group is further divided into subgroups of receptors that are homologous but are encoded by discrete genes. With the exception of the 5-HT3 receptor-a cation channel—all of the others are G protein-coupled receptors that potentially activate or inhibit a large number of biochemical cascades. This review will endeavor to compare and contrast such signaling pathways with special attention to their tissue-specific occurrence, their possible role in immediate effects on covalent modification of other proteins, and relatively slower effects on gene expression, physiology and behavior.
Transmembrane Signaling in the Brain by Serotonin, A Key Regulator of Physiology and Emotion
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Tatyana Adayev, Buddima Ranasinghe, Probal Banerjee; Transmembrane Signaling in the Brain by Serotonin, A Key Regulator of Physiology and Emotion. Biosci Rep 12 October 2005; 25 (5-6): 363–385. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10540-005-2896-3
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