Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders due to a mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. They may depend on mitochondrial genome (mtDNA-related disorders) as well as on a nuclear genome defect (nDNA-related disorders). mtDNA-related disorders encompass an increasing number of clinical pictures associated with more than 250 different provisional or confirmed pathogenic changes in mtDNA. Although some clinical syndromes are nosologically defined, most of the cases present with polymorphous phenotypes ranging from pure myopathy to multi-system involvement. Complexity of mitochondrial genetics is in part responsible for the extreme clinical intra- and inter-familial heterogeneity of this group of diseases. In this review, we briefly report an updated classification and overview the main clinical pictures of this class of diseases.

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