The effect of acclimation at different temperatures on the activity of interscapular brown adipose tissue has been investigated in the hamster, a hibernator. Between 31° and 4°C the cytochrome oxidase activity of the tissue increased 4- to 5-fold, mitochondrial GDP binding per mg of mitochondrial protein doubled, and the amount of uncoupling protein rose from 1.7% to 5.4% of total mitochondrial protein. It is concluded that there are clear adaptive changes induced by temperature in brown adipose tissue of the hamster, but the changes are limited in comparison with those in the mouse.

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