The parathyroid hormone (PTH) release and cytosolic Ca2+ activity were determined in normal bovine parathyroid cells and parathyroid cells obtained from patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT). There was a sigmoid relation between the cytosolic Ca2+ activity and the extracellular calcium concentration between 0.5 and 6.0 mmol/l. The PTH release was inhibited in parallel with the rise in the cytosolic Ca2+ activity. Both the hormone release and the cytosolic Ca2+ activity were lower in cells from human adenomas and hyperplastic glands∼ and in comparison with the bovine preparations these ceils had higher set points for the cytosolic Ca2+ activity and PTH release. There was a close correlation between the individual set points for the cytosolic Ca2+ activity and PTH release in a material containing both normal and pathological cells. The results indicate that the abnormal PTH release characteristic of HPT is due to a defective regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ activity.

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