Monolayer culture of bovine parathyroid cells for 24 hours resulted in a right-shift of the dose-effect relationships for Ca2+-inhibition of parathyroid hormone (PTH) release and the dependence of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+) on extracellular Ca2+ as well as in a less suppressible hormone release. After 4 days of culture, hormone secretion was almost non-suppressible and Cai2+ increased poorly in response to a rise in extracelluiar Ca2+. Ionomycin, a Ca2+ ionophore, raised Cai2+, but there was only a small inhibition of PTH release and the correlation between Cai2+ and secretion was weak. A deteriorated Cai2+ regulation and a decreased inhibitory action of cytoplasmic Ca2+ on PTH release were also found in ceils from human parathyroid adenomas. Functional dedifferentiation of the parathyroid cell thus results from both defective regulation and action of cytoplasmic Ca2+.

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