Type X collagen was prepared from medium of long-term cultures of embryonic chick tibiotarsal chondrocytes. Antibodies to type X collagen were raised and used in immunoperoxidase localization studies with embryonic and growing chick tibiotarsus. Strong anti-type X collagen reactivity was detected mainly in the region of hypertrophic chondrocytes, and to a lesser extent in the zone of calcified cartilage. No reactivity was detected in the proliferative zone nor the superficial layer of the cartilage growth plate. These results suggest that type X collagen may play a key role in matrix calcification during growth and development of the skeletal system.

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