In 12 h fasted rats, rates of muscle protein synthesis were stimulated by refeeding for 1 h and by intragastric or intravenous infusion of an amino acid plus glucose mixture for 1 hr, but not by intravenous infusion of amino acids alone for 1 h. Intravenous injection of anti-insulin serum suppressed the response to feeding and to intragastric infusion, but not to intravenous infusion. It is concluded that the response of muscle protein synthesis to food intake is mediated by both insulin and amino acids acting in concert.

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