The reaction of ATP synthase (F0F1) is the final step in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Although OXPHOS has been studied extensively in bacteria, no tissue-specific functions nor bioenergetic disease, such as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and aging occur in these organisms. Recent developments of the Human Genome Project will become an important factor in the study of mammalian bioenergetics. To elucidate the physiological roles of human F0F1, genes encoding the subunits of F0F1 were sequenced, and their expression in human cells was analyzed. The following results were obtained: A. The roles of the residues in F0F1 are not only to transform the energy of the electrochemical potential (ΔμH+) across the membrane, but also to respond rapidly to the changes in the energy demand by regulating the intramolecular rotation of F0F1 with the ΔμH+ and the inhibitors of the ATPase. B. The roles of the control regions of the F0F1 genes, are to coordinate both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) depending on the energy demand of the cells, especially in muscle. C. The cause of the age-dependent decline of ATP synthesis has been attributed to the accumulation of mutations in mtDNA. However, the involvement of nDNA in the decline is also important because of telomere shortening in somatic cells, and age-dependent mtDNA expression analyzed with ρ° cells (cells without mtDNA).

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