Bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Azospirillum brasilense, avoid microenvironments with elevated oxygen concentrations, not by sensing reactive oxygen derivatives, but by sensing a metabolic down-shift that results from elevated oxygen levels. A novel protein, Aer, and the chemotaxis serine receptor, Tsr, have recently been identified as transducers for aerotaxis which monitor internal energy levels in the bacteria.

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