New facts and ideas concerning the membrane-linked mechanisms preventing superoxide formation are summarised here. It is assumed that aerobic cells possess several lines of anti-ROS defence, including optimisation of the intracellular oxygen concentration, decrease in the concentration and life-time of one-electron O2 reductants such as CoQH; and mitochondrial and cell selections, i.e. elimination of mitochondria and cells producing ROS at high rate. It is postulated that ROS-dependent pore opening and ROS-dependent apoptosis are involved in mitochondrial and cell selections.

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