The article discusses the importance of avian skeletal muscle as a source for heat generation by means of both shivering and non-shivering. Non-shivering thermogenesis in birds is still a polemic issue. Recent evidence at the molecular/cellular level indicates, however, that this type of heat generation may also exist among birds. The involvement of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase in non-shivering thermogenesis is discussed in-depth.

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