Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality. Genetic polymorphisms may affect the susceptibility and clinical outcomes of cancers. We aim to manifest the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of lncRNA-H19 gene with the risk and prognosis of HCC. A total of 944 samples composed of 472 HCC patients and 472 matched controls were included in the risk analysis and amongst them 350 HCC samples were investigated in the prognosis analysis. KASP method was conducted for the SNP genotyping. The TT + CT genotype of rs2839698 was found to be associated with a 1.32-fold increased HCC risk (P=0.037, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.70). In the stratified analysis, rs2839698 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.57, P=0.007, 95% CI = 1.13–2.18) and rs3024270 (OR = 1.71, P=0.019, 95% CI = 1.09–2.68) were found to show more obvious increased HCC risk in the age ≤60 subgroup. And we found that rs2839698 showed an increased HCC risk in the ever smoking subgroup. But in the male subgroup of rs2735971, it showed a decreased HCC risk. Furthermore, haplotype analysis showed that rs2735971-rs2839698-rs3024270 G-T-C significantly increased the risk of HCC (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.01–1.51, P=0.043). Multilogistic analysis revealed no significant results of the interaction effects of the SNPs and environment factors. And in our study, rs2839698 showed a significant poor prognosis in the ever smoking subgroup (hazard rate (HR) = 5.19, 95% CI = 1.12–24.07, P=0.035). lncRNA-H19 rs2839698 SNP has the potential to be predictors for HCC risk and prognosis.

Introduction

Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the major liver malignancy that attributes toward the second foremost cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide [1]. Individual hereditary and environmental factors proved to be associated with the incidence of HCC [2]. So far, there are many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been reported to be related to HCC risk in some coding and non-coding genes and have manifested great significance for the selection of individuals who would benefit from the specific diagnostic and preventative measures [3]. However, few studies investigated the role of lncRNA polymorphisms as a precaution biomarker for HCC risk and prognosis. Furthermore, many studies have reported that the gene polymorphisms could serve as the predictor of the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers [4,5], suggesting a valuable application for the diagnosis and prognosis associated with polymorphisms.

In human genome, there are approximately 5–10% sequences transcribed constantly, and only approximately 1% are protein-coding sequences while a large part of others are non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) [6]. lncRNA, larger than 200 nts, is one of the most important members of the ncRNA family and has been identified as abnormally altered in the genes and differently expressed in tumors [7,8]. The lncRNA-H19, located on chromosome 11p15.5 [9], was reported to be one of the major genes in cancer [10]. Many studies have reported that H19 as an oncogene lncRNA in multiple cancers, such as, colorectal cancer [11], gastric cancer [12], breast cancer [13], bladder cancer [14], and so on. In addition, recent researches have proved that lncRNA-H19 plays important role in cancer initiation, progression, metastasis, and indicates poor prognosis and promotes tumor growth [11,15,16].

It is well accepted that lncRNA-H19 works importantly in the incidence and prognosis of cancers and SNPs in H19 can be used as a promising biomarker for cancers risk [17]. Recently, a meta-analysis for the association of H19 polymorphisms and cancer risk had published [18], but the interaction of H19 SNPs and environmental factors as well as the association of H19 SNPs and the cancer prognosis were not analyzed further. And there is still no investigation about the H19 polymorphism associated with both HCC risk and prognosis. Whether lncRNA-H19 polymorphisms play some roles in HCC and could be promising biomarkers for the risk and prognosis of HCC, it is still not clear.

In the present study, we selected three potential functional SNPs in lncRNA-H19 gene according to the candidate gene association study strategy to explore the relationship between H19 polymorphism and HCC risk and prognosis. We aimed to manifest predictive biomarkers for risk and prognosis of HCC and provide the basic for the use of H19 gene polymorphisms as precautionary biomarkers of individuals and improve the comprehension of the etiology and disease development of HCC.

Materials and methods

Patients and study design

This research project was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Shengjing Hospital of the China Medical University and written informed consent was obtained. The present study was designed as two independent but related parts including risk research and prognosis research. In the risk study, a total of 944 participants were involved, including 472 HCC patients and 472 sex and age (±5) frequency-matched controls from the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from 2013 to 2015. The response rate for cases and controls are up to 90% or more.

For the aim to manifest the relationship between lncRNA-H19 polymorphisms and overall survival in HCC patients, we conducted the research with the data of 350 HCC patients, whose information of death and survival was available for analysis. The HCC patients had pathologically confirmed HCC. Patients (i) with distant metastasis found preoperatively, (ii) who underwent preoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or (iii) with incomplete pathological data entries were excluded from the prognosis analysis. Follow-up was completed by 10 July, 2017.

Polymorphisms’ sites selected

The studied polymorphisms of lncRNA-H19 were selected by the HapMap data [19]. TagSNPs were selected by Tagger via Haploview with the following criteria: pairwise tagging of HapMap population with r2 ≥ 0.8; a minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥5%; and Chinese Han Beijing (CHB) ethnicity. And we expanded 10 kbp both upstream and downstream of H19. Then, 17 SNPs were included as candidate SNPs (Supplementary Figure S1 and Materials), and we referred a published literature [17] and took the intersection as the considering promising aiming SNPs. Ultimately, there were three SNPs covering lncRNA-H19 gene selected to proceed our study which were rs2735971 (G→A), rs2839698 (C→T), rs3024270 (G→C).

Genotyping

Genomic DNA was extracted by the method of literature [20] and was diluted to working concentrations of 20 ng.μl−1 for genotyping. The genotyping assay was performed by Gene Company using KASP (Gene Company, Shanghai, China). The information of KASP primers was summarized in the Supplementary Table S1. Five percent of the whole samples were repeatedly genotyped, the concordance rate of the repeated cases performed 100% which suggested that the genotyping results were reliable.

Statistical analysis

χ2 test was used to compare the demographic characteristics of samples and ANOVA was conducted for age variability. Multivariate logistic regression with adjustments for age and gender was proceeded to calculate the association of the selected SNPs and HCC risk. SHEsis software was used to analyze the haplotype of the selected gene [21]. The analysis of polymorphisms and clinical parameters was performed by χ2 test. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis was conducted by the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards model. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS version 18.0 software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, U.S.A.) and P-value <0.05 was considered to be significantly statistical.

Results

The association of lncRNA-H19 SNPs with HCC risk

The demographic characteristics of HCC and controls are shown in Supplementary Table S2. In Table 1, it showed all the polymorphisms genotype distributions of both cases and controls, including three lncRNA-H19 SNPs (rs2735971, rs2839698, rs3024270) which were all conformed to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE).

Table 1
The association of lncRNA gene SNPs and risk of HCC
Gene Chr. pos. SNPa Loc. Genotype Controls (%) Cases (%) Pb OR (95% CI) PHWE 
Recognition-related 
H19 11p15.5 rs2735971 Intron GG 313 (67.31) 327 (70.32)  1 (Ref.) 0.697 
    AG 139 (29.89) 126 (27.10) 0.336 0.87 (0.65–1.16)  
    AA 13 (2.80) 12 (2.58) 0.824 0.91 (0.41–2.04)  
  rs2839698 Intron CC 245 (53.03) 215 (46.14)  1 (Ref.) 0.297 
    CT 185 (40.04) 211 (45.28) 0.058 1.30 (0.99–1.70)  
    TT 32 (6.93) 40 (8.58) 0.157 1.44 (0.87–2.37)  
    TT + CT vs CC   0.037 1.32 (1.02–1.70)  
    T vs  0.044 1.23 (1.01–1.50)  
  rs3024270 Intron GG 170 (36.48) 151 (32.06)  1 (Ref.) 0.247 
    CG 215 (46.14) 225 (47.78) 0.254 1.18 (0.89–1.58)  
    CC 81 (17.38) 95 (20.16) 0.141 1.32 (0.91–1.91)  
Gene Chr. pos. SNPa Loc. Genotype Controls (%) Cases (%) Pb OR (95% CI) PHWE 
Recognition-related 
H19 11p15.5 rs2735971 Intron GG 313 (67.31) 327 (70.32)  1 (Ref.) 0.697 
    AG 139 (29.89) 126 (27.10) 0.336 0.87 (0.65–1.16)  
    AA 13 (2.80) 12 (2.58) 0.824 0.91 (0.41–2.04)  
  rs2839698 Intron CC 245 (53.03) 215 (46.14)  1 (Ref.) 0.297 
    CT 185 (40.04) 211 (45.28) 0.058 1.30 (0.99–1.70)  
    TT 32 (6.93) 40 (8.58) 0.157 1.44 (0.87–2.37)  
    TT + CT vs CC   0.037 1.32 (1.02–1.70)  
    T vs  0.044 1.23 (1.01–1.50)  
  rs3024270 Intron GG 170 (36.48) 151 (32.06)  1 (Ref.) 0.247 
    CG 215 (46.14) 225 (47.78) 0.254 1.18 (0.89–1.58)  
    CC 81 (17.38) 95 (20.16) 0.141 1.32 (0.91–1.91)  

Abbreviations: Chr. Pos., chromosomal position; CI, confidence interval; Loc., localization; OR, odds ratio; PHWE, P-value for HWE.

aThe sort order was according to the SNP location in its genes from 5′ to 3′ ends.

bP-value was calculated by adjusting age and gender. The bold text in this table means the P<0.05 and is significant.

LncRNA-H19 rs2839698 polymorphism was calculated to be associated with an increased risk of HCC. In the dominant model, rs2839698 TT + TC genotype appeared with a 1.32-fold increased HCC risk when compared with CC genotype (P=0.037, Table 1). Subsequently, we conducted stratified analysis by the factors of gender, age, smoking, and drinking to manifest the relationships between every SNP and HCC risk. The results displayed in Table 2 indicated the potential predicting values for specific subgroup populations. When stratified by gender, rs275971 showed a decreased HCC risk tendency in AG genotype of male subgroup for odds ratio (OR) = 0.72, P=0.048. In the subgroup stratified by age, rs2839698 showed an obvious HCC risk tendency in CT genotype of age ≤60 subgroup (OR = 1.57, P=0.007) and the similar situation was showed in rs3024270 CC genotype of age ≤60 subgroup (OR = 1.71, P=0.019). When stratified by smoking factor, rs2839698 showed a more obvious HCC tendency in CT subgroup of ever smoker subgroup (OR = 1.89, P=0.041, Table 2).

Table 2
The association of lncRNA polymorphisms and hepatocellular risk stratified by host characteristics
Variables Genotype HCC compared with CON P OR (95% CI) 
H19 rs2735971     
Gender     
Male GG 276/248  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 93/117 0.048 0.72 (0.52–1.00) 
 AA 9/9 0.791 0.88 (0.34–2.26) 
Female GG 51/65  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 33/22 0.058 1.92 (0.98–3.78) 
 AA 3/4 0.804 0.82 (0.17–4.05) 
Age     
≤60 GG 205/230  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 87/102 0.811 0.96 (0.68–1.35) 
 AA 8/7 0.537 1.35 (0.48–3.81) 
>60 GG 122/83  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 39/37 0.160 0.68 (0.40–1.17) 
 AA 4/6 0.216 0.44 (0.12–1.62) 
Smoking     
Ever smoker GG 56/80  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 19/43 0.105 0.58 (0.30–1.12) 
 AA 3/4 0.952 1.05 (0.23–4.89) 
Never smoked GG 152/128  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 62/62 0.357 0.81 (0.53–1.26) 
 AA 7/6 0.886 1.09 (0.33–3.63) 
Alcohol drinking     
Drinker GG 32/57  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 11/33 0.171 0.57 (0.25–1.28) 
 AA 3/1 0.157 5.39 (0.52–55.55) 
Non-drinker GG 175/151  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 70/71 0.413 0.84 (0.56–1.27) 
 AA 7/9 0.485 0.68 (0.24–1.98) 
H19 rs2839698     
Gender     
Male CC 176/195  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 168/152 0.191 1.22 (0.91–1.65) 
 TT 33/24 0.147 1.52 (0.86–2.68) 
Female CC 39/50  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 43/33 0.092 1.74 (0.91–3.30) 
 TT 7/8 0.729 1.23 (0.39–3.91) 
Age     
≤60 CC 135/185  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 143/125 0.007 1.57 (1.13–2.18) 
 TT 25/25 0.276 1.40 (0.78–2.55) 
>60 CC 80/60  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 68/60 0.528 0.86 (0.53–1.39) 
 TT 15/7 0.320 1.63 (0.62–4.27) 
Smoking     
Ever smoker CC 29/65  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 40/50 0.041 1.89 (1.03–3.48) 
 TT 9/10 0.155 2.08(0.76–5.68) 
Never smoked CC 112/105  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 88/78 0.917 1.02 (0.67–1.55) 
 TT 22/12 0.121 1.88 (0.85–4.16) 
Alcohol drinking     
Drinker CC 19/45  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 22/40 0.402 1.39 (0.65–2.97) 
 TT 5/4 0.088 3.68 (0.82–16.46) 
Non-drinker CC 121/124  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 106/88 0.360 1.20 (0.81–1.76) 
 TT 26/18 0.166 1.61 (0.82–3.15) 
H19 rs3024270     
Gender     
Male GG 129/136  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 181/173 0.573 1.10 (0.80–1.51) 
 CC 71/64 0.452 1.17 (0.77–1.78) 
Female GG 22/34  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 44/42 0.092 1.86 (0.90–3.82) 
 CC 24/17 0.051 2.39 (1.00–5.73) 
Age     
≤60 GG 93/128  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 145/157 0.153 1.40 (0.88–2.21) 
 CC 67/56 0.019 1.71 (1.09–2.68) 
>60 GG 58/42  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 80/58 0.151 1.29 (0.91–1.84) 
 CC 28/25 0.438 0.76 (0.39–1.51) 
Smoking     
Ever smoker GG 17/44  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 44/57 0.055 1.96 (0.99–3.89) 
 CC 18/24 0.122 1.93 (0.84–4.42) 
Never smoked GG 74/69  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 100/94 0.802 0.94 (0.60–1.48) 
 CC 50/36 0.310 1.34 (0.76–2.34) 
Alcohol drinking     
Drinker GG 13/26  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 23/48 0.921 0.96 (0.41–2.22) 
 CC 10/16 0.553 1.37 (0.48–3.93) 
Non-drinker GG 77/87  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 121/102 0.186 1.33 (0.87–2.01) 
 CC 58/44 0.099 1.53 (0.92–2.55) 
Variables Genotype HCC compared with CON P OR (95% CI) 
H19 rs2735971     
Gender     
Male GG 276/248  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 93/117 0.048 0.72 (0.52–1.00) 
 AA 9/9 0.791 0.88 (0.34–2.26) 
Female GG 51/65  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 33/22 0.058 1.92 (0.98–3.78) 
 AA 3/4 0.804 0.82 (0.17–4.05) 
Age     
≤60 GG 205/230  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 87/102 0.811 0.96 (0.68–1.35) 
 AA 8/7 0.537 1.35 (0.48–3.81) 
>60 GG 122/83  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 39/37 0.160 0.68 (0.40–1.17) 
 AA 4/6 0.216 0.44 (0.12–1.62) 
Smoking     
Ever smoker GG 56/80  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 19/43 0.105 0.58 (0.30–1.12) 
 AA 3/4 0.952 1.05 (0.23–4.89) 
Never smoked GG 152/128  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 62/62 0.357 0.81 (0.53–1.26) 
 AA 7/6 0.886 1.09 (0.33–3.63) 
Alcohol drinking     
Drinker GG 32/57  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 11/33 0.171 0.57 (0.25–1.28) 
 AA 3/1 0.157 5.39 (0.52–55.55) 
Non-drinker GG 175/151  1 (Ref.) 
 AG 70/71 0.413 0.84 (0.56–1.27) 
 AA 7/9 0.485 0.68 (0.24–1.98) 
H19 rs2839698     
Gender     
Male CC 176/195  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 168/152 0.191 1.22 (0.91–1.65) 
 TT 33/24 0.147 1.52 (0.86–2.68) 
Female CC 39/50  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 43/33 0.092 1.74 (0.91–3.30) 
 TT 7/8 0.729 1.23 (0.39–3.91) 
Age     
≤60 CC 135/185  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 143/125 0.007 1.57 (1.13–2.18) 
 TT 25/25 0.276 1.40 (0.78–2.55) 
>60 CC 80/60  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 68/60 0.528 0.86 (0.53–1.39) 
 TT 15/7 0.320 1.63 (0.62–4.27) 
Smoking     
Ever smoker CC 29/65  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 40/50 0.041 1.89 (1.03–3.48) 
 TT 9/10 0.155 2.08(0.76–5.68) 
Never smoked CC 112/105  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 88/78 0.917 1.02 (0.67–1.55) 
 TT 22/12 0.121 1.88 (0.85–4.16) 
Alcohol drinking     
Drinker CC 19/45  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 22/40 0.402 1.39 (0.65–2.97) 
 TT 5/4 0.088 3.68 (0.82–16.46) 
Non-drinker CC 121/124  1 (Ref.) 
 CT 106/88 0.360 1.20 (0.81–1.76) 
 TT 26/18 0.166 1.61 (0.82–3.15) 
H19 rs3024270     
Gender     
Male GG 129/136  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 181/173 0.573 1.10 (0.80–1.51) 
 CC 71/64 0.452 1.17 (0.77–1.78) 
Female GG 22/34  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 44/42 0.092 1.86 (0.90–3.82) 
 CC 24/17 0.051 2.39 (1.00–5.73) 
Age     
≤60 GG 93/128  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 145/157 0.153 1.40 (0.88–2.21) 
 CC 67/56 0.019 1.71 (1.09–2.68) 
>60 GG 58/42  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 80/58 0.151 1.29 (0.91–1.84) 
 CC 28/25 0.438 0.76 (0.39–1.51) 
Smoking     
Ever smoker GG 17/44  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 44/57 0.055 1.96 (0.99–3.89) 
 CC 18/24 0.122 1.93 (0.84–4.42) 
Never smoked GG 74/69  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 100/94 0.802 0.94 (0.60–1.48) 
 CC 50/36 0.310 1.34 (0.76–2.34) 
Alcohol drinking     
Drinker GG 13/26  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 23/48 0.921 0.96 (0.41–2.22) 
 CC 10/16 0.553 1.37 (0.48–3.93) 
Non-drinker GG 77/87  1 (Ref.) 
 CG 121/102 0.186 1.33 (0.87–2.01) 
 CC 58/44 0.099 1.53 (0.92–2.55) 

Abbreviation: CI, confidence interval. The bold text means the significant results.

We further analyzed the relationship between lncRNA-H19 SNPs haplotype and HCC risk and found that rs2735971-rs2839698- rs3024270 G-T-C significantly increased the risk of HCC (OR = 1.23, confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–1.51, P=0.043) (Table 3).

Table 3
The association of haplotype of lncRNA gene and HCC risk
Haplotype Control (%) Case (%) P OR (95% CI) 
H19a     
 ACC* 100.87 (0.110) 110,67 (0.122) 0.461 0.90 (0.67–1.20) 
 ACG* 47.08 (0.051) 49.23 (0.054) 0.812 0.95 (0.63–1.44) 
 GCG* 460.01 (0.501) 485.37 (0.537) 0.207 0.89 (0.74–1.07) 
 GTC* 282.04 (0.307) 242.50 (0.268) 0.043 1.23 (1.01–1.51) 
Haplotype Control (%) Case (%) P OR (95% CI) 
H19a     
 ACC* 100.87 (0.110) 110,67 (0.122) 0.461 0.90 (0.67–1.20) 
 ACG* 47.08 (0.051) 49.23 (0.054) 0.812 0.95 (0.63–1.44) 
 GCG* 460.01 (0.501) 485.37 (0.537) 0.207 0.89 (0.74–1.07) 
 GTC* 282.04 (0.307) 242.50 (0.268) 0.043 1.23 (1.01–1.51) 

Haplotype for a, H19 rs2735971-rs2839698-rs3024270. The bold text means the significant results.

LncRNA-H19 SNP–environment interaction with HCC risk

Data mining was conducted to analysis the possible association between interaction model for lncRNA-H19 polymorphisms and environmental factors in HCC risk (Table 4) and found that there were no significant results.

Table 4
The interaction effect of H19 SNPs and environmental factors
Gene Location SNP Pinteraction with smoking Pinteraction with drinking 
H19 11p15.5 rs2735971 0.535 0.775 
  rs2839698 0.190 0.755 
  rs3024270 0.822 0.973 
Gene Location SNP Pinteraction with smoking Pinteraction with drinking 
H19 11p15.5 rs2735971 0.535 0.775 
  rs2839698 0.190 0.755 
  rs3024270 0.822 0.973 

The association of lncRNA-H19 SNPs with HCC prognosis

The association of HCC patient clinical features and univariate analysis of overall survival was shown in Supplementary Table S3. We also analyzed the relationship of each lncRNA-H19 SNPs and the overall survival of HCC, there existed no significant association between the SNPs and the survival of HCC either in the univariate or multivariate survival analysis (Table 5). In the stratified analysis, we found that the rs2839698 showed a significant poor prognosis in the ever smoking subgroup (hazard rate (HR) = 5.19, CI = 1.12–24.07, P=0.035, Table 6).

Table 5
Univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazard analysis for H19 SNPs on HCC prognosis
Variables   All HCC, n (%) Deaths, n MSTa (M) Univariate P-value Hazard ratio (95% CI) MultivariatecP-value Hazard ratio (95% CI) 
   n=286 n=156      
H19 rs2735971 GG 193 (67.48) 117 (75) 47.000  1 (Ref.)  1 (Ref.) 
  AG 85 (29.72) 37 (23.72) 52.000 0.769 1.06 (0.72–1.57) 0.752 0.94 (0.64–1.39) 
  AA 8 (2.80) 2 (1.28) 33.000 0.756 1.12 (0.55–2.26) 0.763 0.80 (0.20–3.30) 
   n=344 n=136      
 rs2839698 CC 182 (52.9) 69 (50.7) 56.000  1 (Ref.)  1 (Ref.) 
  CT 144 (41.9) 61 (44.9) 48.000 0.776 0.95 (0.67–1.34) 0.716 1.07 (0.75–1.51) 
  TT 18 (5.2) 6 (4.4) 78.4b 0.501 1.16 (0.76–1.76) 0.499 0.75 (0.32–1.73) 
   n=349 n=137      
 rs3024270 GG 59 (16.9) 21 (15.3) 90.000  1 (Ref.)  1 (Ref.) 
  CG 159 (45.6) 67 (48.9) 48.000 0.716 0.91 (0.56–1.49) 0.887 1.03 (0.71–1.49) 
  CC 131 (37.5) 49 (35.8) 56.000 0.831 0.97 (0.75–1.26) 0.808 0.94 (0.56–1.58) 
Variables   All HCC, n (%) Deaths, n MSTa (M) Univariate P-value Hazard ratio (95% CI) MultivariatecP-value Hazard ratio (95% CI) 
   n=286 n=156      
H19 rs2735971 GG 193 (67.48) 117 (75) 47.000  1 (Ref.)  1 (Ref.) 
  AG 85 (29.72) 37 (23.72) 52.000 0.769 1.06 (0.72–1.57) 0.752 0.94 (0.64–1.39) 
  AA 8 (2.80) 2 (1.28) 33.000 0.756 1.12 (0.55–2.26) 0.763 0.80 (0.20–3.30) 
   n=344 n=136      
 rs2839698 CC 182 (52.9) 69 (50.7) 56.000  1 (Ref.)  1 (Ref.) 
  CT 144 (41.9) 61 (44.9) 48.000 0.776 0.95 (0.67–1.34) 0.716 1.07 (0.75–1.51) 
  TT 18 (5.2) 6 (4.4) 78.4b 0.501 1.16 (0.76–1.76) 0.499 0.75 (0.32–1.73) 
   n=349 n=137      
 rs3024270 GG 59 (16.9) 21 (15.3) 90.000  1 (Ref.)  1 (Ref.) 
  CG 159 (45.6) 67 (48.9) 48.000 0.716 0.91 (0.56–1.49) 0.887 1.03 (0.71–1.49) 
  CC 131 (37.5) 49 (35.8) 56.000 0.831 0.97 (0.75–1.26) 0.808 0.94 (0.56–1.58) 

a, MST, median survival time (months).

b, Mean survival time was provided when MST could not be calculated.

c, Multivariate survival analysis was carried out by adding the age and gender variable to the clinicopathological parameters with P<0.05.

Table 6
Univariate proportional hazard analysis stratified by host characteristics for the association of H19 polymorphisms and HCC
Gene SNP Stratified Stratified factors Genotype HCC (n (%)) Deaths (nMSTa(M) P-value Hazard ratio (95% CI) 
H19 rs2735971         
  Gender Male GG 160 (69.57) 67 47.0  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 64 (27.83) 28 52.0 0.669 0.91 (0.58–1.41) 
    AA 6 (2.60) 33.0 0.778 1.23 (0.30–5.04) 
   Female GG 33 (58.93) 13 38.0  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 21(37.50) 32.0 0.918 1.05 (0.45–2.45) 
    AA 2 (3.57) NA NA NA 
  Age ≤60 GG 109 (63.01) 43 47.0  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 58 (33.53) 28 48.0 0.599 1.14 (0.71–1.83) 
    AA 6 (3.46) 25.8b 0.844 0.82 (0.11–6.03) 
   >60 GG 84 (74.34) 37 45.0  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 27 (23.89) 56.0 0.276 0.67 (0.32–1.38) 
    AA 2 (1.77) 33.0 0.847 0.82 (0.11–6.02) 
  Smoking Ever smoker GG 17 (62.96) 97.1b  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 8 (29.63) 117.2b 0.264 0.30 (0.04–2.49) 
    AA 2 (7.41) NA NA NA 
   Never smoked GG 99 (66.44) 35 81.3b  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 46 (30.87) 20 32.0 0.702 1.11 (0.64–1.93) 
    AA 4 (2.69) 33.0 0.665 0.65 (0.09–4.72) 
  Alcohol drinking Drinker GG 9 (60.00) NA  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 4 (26.67) NA NA NA 
    AA 2 (13.33) NA NA NA 
   Non-drinker GG 107 (66.46) 39 84.5b  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 50 (31.06) 21 48.0 0.919 0.97 (0.57–1.66) 
    AA 4 (2.48) 33.0 0.648 0.63 (0.09–4.59) 
  HBV Positive GG 86 (65.15) 31 88.1b  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 40 (30.30) 13 90.0 0.331 0.73 (0.38–1.39) 
    AA 6 (4.55) 64.1b 0.552 0.55 (0.07–4.02) 
   Negative GG 19 (63.33) 27.0  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 11 (36.67) 25.7b 0.803 1.17 (0.34–4.09) 
    AA NA NA NA 
H19 rs2839698         
  Gender Male CC 157 (56.07) 61 56.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 110 (39.29) 50 47.0 0.692 1.08 (0.74–1.57) 
    TT 13 (4.64) 97.5b 0.087 0.29 (0.07–1.20) 
   Female CC 25 (39.06) 55.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 34 (53.13) 11 51.0 0.909 1.05 (0.42–2.63) 
    TT 5 (7.81) 5.0 0.070 3.14 (0.91–10.85) 
  Age ≤60 CC 111 (51.63) 42 56.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 94 (43.72) 43 48.0 0.614 1.12 (0.73–1.71) 
    TT 10 (4.65) 91.4b 0.233 0.42 (0.10–1.75) 
   >60 CC 71 (55.04) 27 56.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 50 (38.76) 18 79.4b 0.838 0.94 (0.52–1.71) 
    TT 8 (6.20) 27.0 0.681 1.25 (0.44–3.58) 
  Smoking Ever smoker CC 16 (50.00) 127.1b  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 16 (50.00) 45.0 0.035 5.19 (1.12–24.07) 
    TT NA NA NA 
   Never smoked CC 97 (57.06) 31 69.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 59 (34.71) 23 47.0 0.624 1.15 (0.67–1.97) 
    TT 14 (8.23) 75.1b 0.792 0.88 (0.34–2.28) 
  Alcohol drinking Drinker CC 12 (63.16) 70.2b  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 7 (36.84) 45.0 0.110 5.99 (0.67–53.96) 
    TT NA NA NA 
   Non-drinker CC 101 (55.19) 32 69.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 68 (37.16) 28 48.0 0.339 1.28 (0.77–2.13) 
    TT 14 (7.65) 75.1b 0.927 0.96 (0.37–2.47) 
  HBV Positive CC 70 (52.24) 19 94.3b  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 55 (41.04) 24 52.0 0.125 1.60 (0.88–2.93) 
    TT 9 (6.72) 78.7b 0.924 0.94 (0.28–3.20) 
   Negative CC 17 (56.67) 42.2b  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 11 (36.67) 58.3b 0.882 0.90 (0.22–3.65) 
    TT 2 (6.66) 2.0 0.229 2.74 (0.53–14.18) 
H19 rs3024270         
  Gender Male GG 114 (40.14) 45 56.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 131 (46.13) 57 48.0 0.946 0.99 (0.67–1.46) 
    CC 39 (13.73) 12 90.0 0.233 0.68 (0.36–1.28) 
   Female GG 17 (26.15) 55.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 28 (43.08) 10 51.0 0.532 1.45 (0.45–4.65) 
    CC 20 (30.77) 27.0 0.086 2.83 (0.87–9.28) 
  Age ≤60 GG 79 (36.41) 28 86.7b  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 99 (45.62) 44 48.0 0.926 1.02 (0.64–1.65) 
    CC 39 (17.97) 15 90.0 0.611 1.18 (0.63-2.21) 
   >60 GG 52 (39.39) 21 55.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 60 (45.46) 23 76.8b 0.946 0.98 (0.54–1.77) 
    CC 20 (15.15 56.6b 0.370 0.66 (0.27–1.64) 
  Smoking Ever smoker GG 7 (21.21) NA  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 21 (63.64) 10 NA NA NA 
    CC 5 (15.15) NA NA NA 
   Never smoked GG 65 (37.79) 20 86.3b  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 71 (41.28) 27 47.0 0.710 1.12 (0.63–1.99) 
    CC 36 (20.93) 13 90.0 0.978 1.01 (0.50–2.04) 
  Alcohol drinking Drinker GG 7 (36.84) NA  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 10 (52.63) NA 0.298 NA 
    CC 2 (10.53) NA NA NA 
   Non-drinker GG 65 (34.95) 20 91.3b  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 82 (44.09) 32 69.0 0.518 1.20 (0.69–2.11) 
    CC 39 (20.96) 14 90.0 0.939 1.03 (0.52–2.04) 
  HBV Positive GG 45 (32.61) 13 95.0b  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 63 (45.65) 25 69.0 0.398 1.34 (0.68–2.62) 
    CC 30 (21.74) 90.0 0.951 0.97 (0.42–2.28) 
   Negative GG 12 (40.00) 44.7b  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 13 (43.33) 51.5b 0.786 1.22 (0.29–5.05) 
    CC 5 (16.67) 27.0 0.358 2.03 (0.45–9.20) 
Gene SNP Stratified Stratified factors Genotype HCC (n (%)) Deaths (nMSTa(M) P-value Hazard ratio (95% CI) 
H19 rs2735971         
  Gender Male GG 160 (69.57) 67 47.0  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 64 (27.83) 28 52.0 0.669 0.91 (0.58–1.41) 
    AA 6 (2.60) 33.0 0.778 1.23 (0.30–5.04) 
   Female GG 33 (58.93) 13 38.0  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 21(37.50) 32.0 0.918 1.05 (0.45–2.45) 
    AA 2 (3.57) NA NA NA 
  Age ≤60 GG 109 (63.01) 43 47.0  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 58 (33.53) 28 48.0 0.599 1.14 (0.71–1.83) 
    AA 6 (3.46) 25.8b 0.844 0.82 (0.11–6.03) 
   >60 GG 84 (74.34) 37 45.0  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 27 (23.89) 56.0 0.276 0.67 (0.32–1.38) 
    AA 2 (1.77) 33.0 0.847 0.82 (0.11–6.02) 
  Smoking Ever smoker GG 17 (62.96) 97.1b  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 8 (29.63) 117.2b 0.264 0.30 (0.04–2.49) 
    AA 2 (7.41) NA NA NA 
   Never smoked GG 99 (66.44) 35 81.3b  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 46 (30.87) 20 32.0 0.702 1.11 (0.64–1.93) 
    AA 4 (2.69) 33.0 0.665 0.65 (0.09–4.72) 
  Alcohol drinking Drinker GG 9 (60.00) NA  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 4 (26.67) NA NA NA 
    AA 2 (13.33) NA NA NA 
   Non-drinker GG 107 (66.46) 39 84.5b  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 50 (31.06) 21 48.0 0.919 0.97 (0.57–1.66) 
    AA 4 (2.48) 33.0 0.648 0.63 (0.09–4.59) 
  HBV Positive GG 86 (65.15) 31 88.1b  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 40 (30.30) 13 90.0 0.331 0.73 (0.38–1.39) 
    AA 6 (4.55) 64.1b 0.552 0.55 (0.07–4.02) 
   Negative GG 19 (63.33) 27.0  1 (Ref.) 
    AG 11 (36.67) 25.7b 0.803 1.17 (0.34–4.09) 
    AA NA NA NA 
H19 rs2839698         
  Gender Male CC 157 (56.07) 61 56.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 110 (39.29) 50 47.0 0.692 1.08 (0.74–1.57) 
    TT 13 (4.64) 97.5b 0.087 0.29 (0.07–1.20) 
   Female CC 25 (39.06) 55.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 34 (53.13) 11 51.0 0.909 1.05 (0.42–2.63) 
    TT 5 (7.81) 5.0 0.070 3.14 (0.91–10.85) 
  Age ≤60 CC 111 (51.63) 42 56.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 94 (43.72) 43 48.0 0.614 1.12 (0.73–1.71) 
    TT 10 (4.65) 91.4b 0.233 0.42 (0.10–1.75) 
   >60 CC 71 (55.04) 27 56.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 50 (38.76) 18 79.4b 0.838 0.94 (0.52–1.71) 
    TT 8 (6.20) 27.0 0.681 1.25 (0.44–3.58) 
  Smoking Ever smoker CC 16 (50.00) 127.1b  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 16 (50.00) 45.0 0.035 5.19 (1.12–24.07) 
    TT NA NA NA 
   Never smoked CC 97 (57.06) 31 69.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 59 (34.71) 23 47.0 0.624 1.15 (0.67–1.97) 
    TT 14 (8.23) 75.1b 0.792 0.88 (0.34–2.28) 
  Alcohol drinking Drinker CC 12 (63.16) 70.2b  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 7 (36.84) 45.0 0.110 5.99 (0.67–53.96) 
    TT NA NA NA 
   Non-drinker CC 101 (55.19) 32 69.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 68 (37.16) 28 48.0 0.339 1.28 (0.77–2.13) 
    TT 14 (7.65) 75.1b 0.927 0.96 (0.37–2.47) 
  HBV Positive CC 70 (52.24) 19 94.3b  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 55 (41.04) 24 52.0 0.125 1.60 (0.88–2.93) 
    TT 9 (6.72) 78.7b 0.924 0.94 (0.28–3.20) 
   Negative CC 17 (56.67) 42.2b  1 (Ref.) 
    CT 11 (36.67) 58.3b 0.882 0.90 (0.22–3.65) 
    TT 2 (6.66) 2.0 0.229 2.74 (0.53–14.18) 
H19 rs3024270         
  Gender Male GG 114 (40.14) 45 56.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 131 (46.13) 57 48.0 0.946 0.99 (0.67–1.46) 
    CC 39 (13.73) 12 90.0 0.233 0.68 (0.36–1.28) 
   Female GG 17 (26.15) 55.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 28 (43.08) 10 51.0 0.532 1.45 (0.45–4.65) 
    CC 20 (30.77) 27.0 0.086 2.83 (0.87–9.28) 
  Age ≤60 GG 79 (36.41) 28 86.7b  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 99 (45.62) 44 48.0 0.926 1.02 (0.64–1.65) 
    CC 39 (17.97) 15 90.0 0.611 1.18 (0.63-2.21) 
   >60 GG 52 (39.39) 21 55.0  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 60 (45.46) 23 76.8b 0.946 0.98 (0.54–1.77) 
    CC 20 (15.15 56.6b 0.370 0.66 (0.27–1.64) 
  Smoking Ever smoker GG 7 (21.21) NA  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 21 (63.64) 10 NA NA NA 
    CC 5 (15.15) NA NA NA 
   Never smoked GG 65 (37.79) 20 86.3b  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 71 (41.28) 27 47.0 0.710 1.12 (0.63–1.99) 
    CC 36 (20.93) 13 90.0 0.978 1.01 (0.50–2.04) 
  Alcohol drinking Drinker GG 7 (36.84) NA  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 10 (52.63) NA 0.298 NA 
    CC 2 (10.53) NA NA NA 
   Non-drinker GG 65 (34.95) 20 91.3b  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 82 (44.09) 32 69.0 0.518 1.20 (0.69–2.11) 
    CC 39 (20.96) 14 90.0 0.939 1.03 (0.52–2.04) 
  HBV Positive GG 45 (32.61) 13 95.0b  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 63 (45.65) 25 69.0 0.398 1.34 (0.68–2.62) 
    CC 30 (21.74) 90.0 0.951 0.97 (0.42–2.28) 
   Negative GG 12 (40.00) 44.7b  1 (Ref.) 
    CG 13 (43.33) 51.5b 0.786 1.22 (0.29–5.05) 
    CC 5 (16.67) 27.0 0.358 2.03 (0.45–9.20) 

NA, not available. The bold text means the significant results.

a, MST, median survival time (months);

b, Mean survival time was provided when MST could not be calculated.

Discussion

H19 gene, with the length of 2.3 kb and located in 11p15.5, containing five exons and three introns [22], which has been well accepted that lncRNA-H19 plays an important role in the development, migration, invasion, and metastasis of cancers [23]. As a long ncRNA, H19 lacks the ORF to translate protein, however, the end product of which is RNA sequence and can also participate in RNA regulation [24]. Due to the relationship between H19 variants and cancer risk as well as prognosis is still needed to be clarified; the H19 polymorphisms have been of great interest in the recent years [17]. Many studies have been reported that H19 SNPs were related to cancers risk and prognosis, such as, rs217727 with breast cancer [13], rs2389698 with gastric cancer [25], but rs1859168 was reported to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer [26]. However, the association between lncRNA-H19 SNPs and HCC risk and prognosis is still unreported.

In order to research the role of H19 SNPs in HCC risk and prognosis, we screened three intron SNPs in H19 gene. Under the dominant model, TT + CT genotype of rs2389698 was found to be 1.32-fold increased HCC risk compared with CC wild-type; this is the first report indicating that H19 SNPs was related to HCC risk. Thus, rs2389698 may serve as a promising predictor for HCC risk. The rs2389698 was an intron SNP and it is accepted now that intron SNP also had its possibly own functions such as affecting selective splicing [27,28]. Because some intron polymorphisms had some important location and even function, it is believable that choosing intron SNP for research is also a good choice such as this rs2389698 SNP.

When stratified by gender, age, smoking, and drinking factors, a more obvious OR of 1.57 and 1.71 was shown for the rs2389698 and rs3024270 in the age ≤60 subgroup, respectively. And in the ever-smoking subgroup of rs2389698, it showed 1.89-fold increased HCC risk. It was reported that the expression of H19 could be induced by cigarette smoke condensate in human respiratory epithelial cells [29]. Thus, we suppose that the mature lncRNA-H19 could be affected by cigarette smoke and when in the ever-smoking subgroup, the polymorphisms could contribute to more functions than the environmental factors. These results indicated that the promising SNPs of H19 may be better biomarkers for the certain subgroup and could bring benefit to the individualized diagnosis for HCC in the certain population.

Furthermore, we performed interaction analysis for the multiple lncRNA-H19 SNPs and environmental factors including smoking and drinking. Yet there showed no interaction between the three polymorphisms and environmental factors. And in the lncRNA-H19 SNPs haplotype and HCC risk analysis, rs2735971-rs2839698-rs3024270 G-T-C were found significantly increased the risk of HCC (OR = 1.23, CI = 1.01–1.51, P=0.043). These results suggested that the G-T-C haplotype suffers more risk than other haplotype.

We further performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis of overall survival time to explore the association between lncRNA-H19 SNPs and HCC prognosis. No significant association was found between H19 SNPs and HCC overall survival. In addition, we performed subgroup analysis for HCC prognosis and found rs2839698 that showed significant poor survival condition in the ever-smoking subgroup which suggested that it may affect HCC prognosis and could be a promising biomarker for HCC prognosis. As discussed above, the expression of H19 could be induced by cigarette smoke [29]. Thus, when in the ever-smoking subgroup, the polymorphisms could contribute more functions than the environmental factors and individuals carrying the variant genotype which also had a higher incidence of cancer risk could have a poorer survival of HCC.

However, there still existed several limitations in the present study. First, the sample size was relatively not large enough for the analysis which may limit the possible analysis of other subgroup analysis and interaction analysis for variant genotype. Second, we only studied the local population and did not include residents of other areas. Third, because the controls were collected from the health check program of our hospital and there was no message of the HBV for them which could not assess the influence of this factor. In future, larger sample and multicenter samples are needed for the confirmation study of our findings.

In conclusion, we found an intron rs2839698 SNP of lncRNA-H19 was associated with an increased risk of HCC. And more significant findings were shown in the age ≤60 subgroup in rs2839698 and rs3024270. In the ever-smoking subgroup, rs2839698 showed an obvious increased HCC risk too. But we got an adverse result in the male subgroup of rs2735971 SNP that showed a decreased HCC risk. In addition, we found that the rs2735971-rs2839698- rs3024270 G-T-C significantly increased the risk of HCC in the analysis of haplotype and HCC risk. And the MDR analysis had no significant findings. In the prognosis analysis, the rs2839698 showed a poor prognosis in the ever-smoking subgroup. In the future, the larger scale sample experiments and analyses are needed to confirm our results.

Competing interests

The authors declare that there are no competing interests associated with the manuscript.

Author contribution

Wei-song Cai conceived and designed this study. Zhe Huang collected the samples. Ming-li Yang, Qian Wang, Huan-huan Chen and Sai-nan Ma performed the experiment. Ming-li Yang wrote the paper, Rong Wu and Wei-song Cai revised the manuscript.

Funding

The authors declare that there are no sources of funding to be acknowledged.

Abbreviations

     
  • CI

    confidence interval

  •  
  • HCC

    hepatocellular cancer

  •  
  • HR

    hazard rate

  •  
  • ncRNA

    non-coding RNA

  •  
  • OR

    odds ratio

  •  
  • SNP

    single nucleotide polymorphism

  •  
  • lncRNA-H19

    Long non-coding RNA-H19

  •  
  • KASP

    kompetitive allele specific polymerase chain reaction

  •  
  • MDR

    multifactor dimensionality reduction

References

References
1
Kanthaje
S.
,
Makol
A.
and
Chakraborti
A.
(
2018
)
Sorafenib response in hepatocellular carcinoma: MicroRNAs as tuning forks miRNAs as regulators of sorafenib response in HCC
.
Hepatol. Res.
,
48
,
5
14
,
[PubMed]
2
Budny
A.
,
Kozlowski
P.
,
Kaminska
M.
et al. 
(
2017
)
Epidemiology and risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma
.
Pol. Merkur. Lekarski.
43
,
133
139
[PubMed]
3
Nahon
P.
and
Zucman-Rossi
J.
(
2012
)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis
.
J. Hepatol.
57
,
663
674
[PubMed]
4
Zhou
J.
,
Yu
Y.
,
Zhu
A.
et al. 
(
2017
)
Meta-analysis of association between rs1447295 polymorphism and prostate cancer susceptibility
.
Oncotarget
8
,
67029
67042
[PubMed]
5
Li
Y.
,
Zhang
F.
and
Yang
D.
(
2017
)
Comprehensive assessment and meta-analysis of the association between CTNNB1 polymorphisms and cancer risk
.
Biosci. Rep.
,
6
Consortium
E.P.
,
Birney
E.
,
Stamatoyannopoulos
J.A.
et al. 
(
2007
)
Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project
.
Nature
447
,
799
816
[PubMed]
7
Hu
X.
,
Sood
A.K.
,
Dang
C.V.
et al. 
(
2017
)
The role of long noncoding RNAs in cancer: the dark matter matters
.
Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.
48
,
8
15
[PubMed]
8
Pukhal’skii
A.L.
(
1971
)
Inhibition of the formation of erythrocyte rosettes as a method of evaluating the activity of antilymphocyte preparations
.
Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med.
71
,
82
85
[PubMed]
9
Xia
Z.
,
Yan
R.
,
Duan
F.
et al. 
(
2016
)
Genetic polymorphisms in long noncoding RNA H19 are associated with susceptibility to breast cancer in Chinese population
.
Medicine (Baltimore)
95
,
e2771
[PubMed]
10
Raveh
E.
,
Matouk
I.J.
,
Gilon
M.
et al. 
(
2015
)
The H19 long non-coding RNA in cancer initiation, progression and metastasis - a proposed unifying theory
.
Mol. Cancer
14
,
184
[PubMed]
11
Plum
F.
(
1972
)
Examination of the unconscious patient
.
Br. Med. J.
1
,
49
[PubMed]
12
Yan
J.
,
Zhang
Y.
,
She
Q.
et al. 
(
2017
)
Long noncoding RNA H19/miR-675 axis promotes gastric cancer via FADD/Caspase 8/Caspase 3 signaling pathway
.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
42
,
2364
2376
[PubMed]
13
Lin
Y.
,
Fu
F.
,
Chen
Y.
et al. 
(
2017
)
Genetic variants in long noncoding RNA H19 contribute to the risk of breast cancer in a southeast China Han population
.
Onco. Targets Ther.
10
,
4369
4378
[PubMed]
14
Lv
M.
,
Zhong
Z.
,
Huang
M.
et al. 
(
2017
)
lncRNA H19 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of bladder cancer by miR-29b-3p as competing endogenous RNA
.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1864
,
1887
1899
[PubMed]
15
Nicol
P.A.
and
Lachmann
P.J.
(
1973
)
The alternate pathway of complement activation. The role of C3 and its inactivator (KAF)
.
Immunology
24
,
259
275
[PubMed]
16
Czarnecka
E.
and
Kubik-Bogucka
E.
(
1986
)
Effect of various catecholaminergic receptor agonists and blockaders on ethanol-induced/sleep and hypothermia in mice
.
Acta Pol. Pharm.
43
,
371
378
[PubMed]
17
Lv
Z.
,
Xu
Q.
and
Yuan
Y.
(
2017
)
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between long non-coding RNA polymorphisms and cancer risk
.
Mutat. Res.
771
,
1
14
[PubMed]
18
Li
X.F.
,
Yin
X.H.
,
Cai
J.W.
et al. 
(
2017
)
Significant association between lncRNA H19 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis
.
Oncotarget
8
,
45143
45153
[PubMed]
19
Xu
Q.
,
Chen
M.Y.
,
He
C.Y.
et al. 
(
2013
)
Promoter polymorphisms in trefoil factor 2 and trefoil factor 3 genes and susceptibility to gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis among Chinese population
.
Gene
529
,
104
112
[PubMed]
20
Xu
Q.
,
Yuan
Y.
,
Sun
L.P.
et al. 
(
2009
)
Risk of gastric cancer is associated with the MUC1 568 A/G polymorphism
.
Int. J. Oncol.
35
,
1313
1320
[PubMed]
21
Li
Z.
,
Zhang
Z.
,
He
Z.
et al. 
(
2009
)
A partition-ligation-combination-subdivision EM algorithm for haplotype inference with multiallelic markers: update of the SHEsis (http://analysis.bio-x.cn)
.
Cell Res.
19
,
519
523
[PubMed]
22
Gabory
A.
,
Ripoche
M.A.
,
Yoshimizu
T.
et al. 
(
2006
)
The H19 gene: regulation and function of a non-coding RNA
.
Cytogenet. Genome Res.
113
,
188
193
[PubMed]
23
Yoshimura
H.
,
Matsuda
Y.
,
Yamamoto
M.
et al. 
(
2018
)
Expression and role of long non-coding RNA H19 in carcinogenesis
.
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed.)
23
,
614
625
[PubMed]
24
Brannan
C.I.
,
Dees
E.C.
,
Ingram
R.S.
et al. 
(
1990
)
The product of the H19 gene may function as an RNA
.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
10
,
28
36
[PubMed]
25
Yang
C.
,
Tang
R.
,
Ma
X.
et al. 
(
2015
)
Tag SNPs in long non-coding RNA H19 contribute to susceptibility to gastric cancer in the Chinese Han population
.
Oncotarget
6
,
15311
15320
[PubMed]
26
Hu
P.
,
Qiao
O.
,
Wang
J.
et al. 
(
2017
)
rs1859168 A >C polymorphism regulates HOTTIP expression and reduces risk of pancreatic cancer in a Chinese population
.
World J. Surg. Oncol.
15
,
155
[PubMed]
27
De Brasi
C.D.
and
Bowen
D.J.
(
2008
)
Molecular characteristics of the intron 22 homologs of the coagulation factor VIII gene: an update
.
J. Thromb. Haemost.
6
,
1822
1824
[PubMed]
28
Biamonti
G.
,
Catillo
M.
,
Pignataro
D.
et al. 
(
2014
)
The alternative splicing side of cancer
.
Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.
32
,
30
36
[PubMed]
29
Liu
F.
,
Killian
J.K.
,
Yang
M.
et al. 
(
2010
)
Epigenomic alterations and gene expression profiles in respiratory epithelia exposed to cigarette smoke condensate
.
Oncogene
29
,
3650
3664
[PubMed]
This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).