Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most devastating complications of diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a basic helix–loop–helix leucine zipper transcription factor that primarily mediates glucose homeostasis in the body. The present study investigated the role of ChREBP in the pathogenesis of DN. The expression of ChREBP was detected in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), diabetic mice, and mesangial cells. ELISA was used to measure cytokine production in mesangial cells. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to detect the apoptosis of mesangial cells in the presence of high glucose. The expression levels of ChREBP and several cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) were up-regulated in T2DM patients. The mRNA and protein levels of ChREBP were also significantly elevated in the kidneys of diabetic mice. Moreover, glucose treatment promoted mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in mesangial cells. Glucose stimulation induced significant apoptosis of SV40 MES 13 cells. In addition, transfection with ChREBP siRNA significantly inhibited ChREBP expression. Consequently, the inflammatory responses and apoptosis were inhibited in SV40 MES 13 cells. These results demonstrated that ChREBP could mediate the inflammatory response and apoptosis of mesangial cells, suggesting that ChREBP may be involved in the pathogenesis of DN.

Introduction

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most devastating complications of diabetes mellitus and is characterized by macroalbuminuria, hypertension, and decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [1]. Recently, DN has become an important cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a cause link between glucose control and the development of DN in diabetes patients. In addition, effective control of glucose leads to an obvious reduction in the risk of albuminuria of DN [2,3]. However, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of DN.

Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a basic helix–loop–helix leucine zipper transcription factor that primarily mediates glucose homeostasis in the body. After forming a heterodimeric complex in the nucleus, this protein activates carbohydrate response element motifs for transcriptional regulation of its target genes in a glucose-dependent manner [4,5]. Amounting evidence shows that ChREBP and its targets genes play critical roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes in the body [6]. In the liver, the production and transcriptional activity of ChREBP are controlled by fasting and feeding [7]. Moreover, the expression of ChREBP is markedly elevated in the liver of diabetic mice [8]. Conversely, knockdown of ChREBP in obese mice causes obvious metabolic disorders, such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and liver steatosis [9].

In the present study, we detected the expression levels of ChREBP and its target genes in patients with type II diabetes and further investigated the roles of ChREBP in glomerular mesangial cells.

Materials and methods

Patients and tissue specimens

Patients (62 cases) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited in the Second Hospital of Jilin University from March 2015 to November 2017. Diagnostic criteria: meeting the 1999 WHO diagnosis of diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l and/or 2-h postprandial plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l) and the classification criteria, with kidney dysfunction to various degree. According to the 24 h-urinary albumin excretion rate (24 h-UAER), patients were divided to type 2 diabetes mellitus group (DM group, 24 h-UAER < 30 mg/24 h) and diabetic nephropathy group (DN group, 24 h-UAER ≥ 30 mg/24 h). Thirty cases healthy subjects (NC group) without family history of diabetes were enrolled in the hospital within the same period. The blood samples were collected from the cubital vein, and the serum was isolated from the whole blood sample post coagulation. The present study was approved by the Internal Review Board (IRB) of Second Hospital of Jilin University, and each participant signed the informed consent.

Cell culture

Renal mesangial SV40-MES 13 cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) (Rockville, MD, U.S.A.) and were cultured in low glucose Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM; GIBCO, Rockville, MD, U.S.A.), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, U.S.A.). The cells were incubated at 37°C, with 5% CO2.

Animals

Male C57BL/6 mice were purchased from the Shanghai Laboratory Animal Company (SLAC, Shanghai, China). Mice were fasted for 4 h and injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg STZ (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.) or vehicle control for five consecutive days. All animal experiments were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Jilin University.

Real-time PCR

RNA was isolated from cultured cells using the RNeasy mini-kit (Qiagen, Germany). The quantity and quality of total RNA samples were checked by Bioanalyzer RNA 6000 Nano assay (Agilent, Waldbronn, Germany). Total RNA (1 µg) was reverse transcribed into cDNA with the PrimeScript RT Master Mix Perfect Real Time (TaKaRa). Real-time PCR conditions were 25–30 cycles at 95°C for 30s, 56°C for 30s, and 72°C for 1 min. All reactions were performed in triplicate. The relative amounts of mRNA were calculated by using the comparative CT method.

ELISA

The production of ChREBP and inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (R&D System, Minneapolis, Minn, U.S.A.). These concentrations were interpolated from the standard curves and all the samples were assayed in triplicate.

Western blot

Whole cells were lysed in 1× SDS sample buffer and resolved by electrophoresis using SDS-PAGE and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. The membranes were probed with primary antibodies overnight, and then incubated with appropriate horseradish peroxide-conjugated secondary antibodies for 3 h followed by detection with a Super Signal Enhanced Chemiluminescence kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL). For sequential blotting, the membranes were stripped with Stripping Buffer (Pierce) and re-probed with proper antibodies.

Statistical analysis

The results were calculated as the mean ± the standard derivation (SD). Significances between groups were evaluated using Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA. Values with P<0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results

Clinical and biochemical characteristics

Main metabolic and biochemical characteristics of all subjects are summarized in Table 1. There were 13 males and 19 females with an average age of 54.59 ± 13.63 years in the DM group, and 12 males and 18 females with an average age of 52.70 ± 8.12 years in the DN group; and 10 males and 20 females were included in the control group with well-matched age of 51.07 ± 6.87 (P=0.390). The detailed values of BMI, FPG, HbA1c, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, FINS, Scr, or HOMA-IR in the DM, DN, or control group were shown in Table 1.

Table 1
General characteristics of patients and healthy controls
ParametersNC (n=30)DM (n=32)DN (n=30)χ2/F/tP
Age 51.07± 6.87 54.59 ± 13.63 52.70 ± 8.12 0.951 0.390 
Male/female 10/20 13/19 12/18 0.422 0.810 
BMI (kg/m221.88 ± 2.49 25.78 ± 3.60 25.99 ± 3.11 16.739 <0.001 
FPG (mmol/l) 5.59 ± 0.29 9.84 ± 3.27 11.03 ± 3.27 34.626 <0.001 
HbA1c (%) 5.26 ± 0.35 8.57 ±1.96 9.85 ± 2.04 61.639 <0.001 
FINS (mU/l) 8.69 ± 1.40 15.89 ± 10.18 18.50 ± 10.49 10.700 <0.001 
HOMA-IR 2.16 ± 0.38 6.83 ± 5.51 8.95 ± 6.27 15.462 <0.001 
Scr (μmol/l) 53.57 ± 5.61 71.22 ± 25.13 73.30 ± 25.81 7.943 0.001 
TG (mmol/l) 0.77 ± 0.29 2.53 ± 1.60 3.21 ± 1.69 25.788 <0.001 
TC (mmol/l) 2.94 ± 0.30 5.27 ± 1.33 6.46 ± 1.37 76.537 <0.001 
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.23 ± 0.12 1.21 ± 0.22 1.22 ± 0.21 0.091 0.913 
LDL-C (mmol/l) 2.71 ± 0.78 2.82 ± 0.22 2.79 ± 0.26 0.445 0.642 
24 h-UAER (mg/24 h) 17.78 ± 3.19 219.72 ± 183.12 222.10 ± 189.34 17.858 <0.001 
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2130.75 ± 15.07 96.79 ± 37.43 92.73 ± 50.04 9.562 <0.001 
IL-1β (pg/ml) 42.20 ± 6.79 64.30 ± 11.49 65.05 ± 10.59 52.327 <0.001 
IL-6 (pg/ml) 44.11 ± 11.72 54.61 ± 6.21 55.32 ± 6.08 16.972 <0.001 
ChREBP (ng/ml) 128.82 ± 22.85 153.81 ± 37.57 154.87 ± 37.17 5.922 0.004 
TNF-α (pg/ml) 41.49 ± 7.32 49.73 ± 6.70 51.49 ± 7.12 18.100 <0.001 
ParametersNC (n=30)DM (n=32)DN (n=30)χ2/F/tP
Age 51.07± 6.87 54.59 ± 13.63 52.70 ± 8.12 0.951 0.390 
Male/female 10/20 13/19 12/18 0.422 0.810 
BMI (kg/m221.88 ± 2.49 25.78 ± 3.60 25.99 ± 3.11 16.739 <0.001 
FPG (mmol/l) 5.59 ± 0.29 9.84 ± 3.27 11.03 ± 3.27 34.626 <0.001 
HbA1c (%) 5.26 ± 0.35 8.57 ±1.96 9.85 ± 2.04 61.639 <0.001 
FINS (mU/l) 8.69 ± 1.40 15.89 ± 10.18 18.50 ± 10.49 10.700 <0.001 
HOMA-IR 2.16 ± 0.38 6.83 ± 5.51 8.95 ± 6.27 15.462 <0.001 
Scr (μmol/l) 53.57 ± 5.61 71.22 ± 25.13 73.30 ± 25.81 7.943 0.001 
TG (mmol/l) 0.77 ± 0.29 2.53 ± 1.60 3.21 ± 1.69 25.788 <0.001 
TC (mmol/l) 2.94 ± 0.30 5.27 ± 1.33 6.46 ± 1.37 76.537 <0.001 
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.23 ± 0.12 1.21 ± 0.22 1.22 ± 0.21 0.091 0.913 
LDL-C (mmol/l) 2.71 ± 0.78 2.82 ± 0.22 2.79 ± 0.26 0.445 0.642 
24 h-UAER (mg/24 h) 17.78 ± 3.19 219.72 ± 183.12 222.10 ± 189.34 17.858 <0.001 
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2130.75 ± 15.07 96.79 ± 37.43 92.73 ± 50.04 9.562 <0.001 
IL-1β (pg/ml) 42.20 ± 6.79 64.30 ± 11.49 65.05 ± 10.59 52.327 <0.001 
IL-6 (pg/ml) 44.11 ± 11.72 54.61 ± 6.21 55.32 ± 6.08 16.972 <0.001 
ChREBP (ng/ml) 128.82 ± 22.85 153.81 ± 37.57 154.87 ± 37.17 5.922 0.004 
TNF-α (pg/ml) 41.49 ± 7.32 49.73 ± 6.70 51.49 ± 7.12 18.100 <0.001 

Serum ChREBP was up-regulated in T2DM patients and was correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines

To investigate the inflammatory reaction to the high glucose in T2DM subjects, we then examined the serum levels of pre-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, in T2DM patients and in control subjects. It was demonstrated that the serum levels of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 were up-regulated in T2DM patients, compared with the control subjects (P<0.05) (Figure 1A–C). ChREBP was also increased in T2DM patients, compared with the control subjects (P<0.05) (Figure 1D). Additionally, there was a positive correlation between ChREBP and TNFα, IL-1β, or IL-6 (Figure 2A–C).

Expression of serum ChREBP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in T2DM patients

Figure 1
Expression of serum ChREBP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in T2DM patients

ELISA was performed to detect the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNFα (A), IL-1β (B) and IL-6 (C), and ChREBP (D);**P<0.01.

Figure 1
Expression of serum ChREBP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in T2DM patients

ELISA was performed to detect the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNFα (A), IL-1β (B) and IL-6 (C), and ChREBP (D);**P<0.01.

Correlation between ChREBP and pro-inflammatory cytokines

Figure 2
Correlation between ChREBP and pro-inflammatory cytokines

Correlation analysis between ChREBP and TNFα (A), IL-1β (B), and IL-6 (C).

Figure 2
Correlation between ChREBP and pro-inflammatory cytokines

Correlation analysis between ChREBP and TNFα (A), IL-1β (B), and IL-6 (C).

ChREBP were increased in diabetic mice and mesangial cells

C57BL/6 mice with diabetic models were induced by administration with streptozotocin (STZ). Consequently, we found that the mRNA and protein levels of ChREBP were significantly elevated in the kidneys of diabetic mice (Figure 3A,B). Moreover, mRNA expression of its target genes, L-PK, FASN and SCD-1, were also up-regulated (Figure 3C). In addition, we detected the expression of ChREBP and its target genes in mesangial cells response to glucose. As expected, we found that high glucose treatment led to an elevated expression of ChREBP and its target genes, L-PK, FASN and SCD-1, in mesangial cells (Figure 4A–C). Taken together, these results suggested that ChREBP were increased in diabetic mice and glucose-treated mesangial cells.

Expression of ChREBP and its target genes in diabetic mice

Figure 3
Expression of ChREBP and its target genes in diabetic mice

Real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to determine the mRNA and protein levels of ChREBP (A and B). The mRNA expression of L-PK, FASN and SCD-1 were measured by real-time PCR (C); **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

Figure 3
Expression of ChREBP and its target genes in diabetic mice

Real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to determine the mRNA and protein levels of ChREBP (A and B). The mRNA expression of L-PK, FASN and SCD-1 were measured by real-time PCR (C); **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

Expression of ChREBP and its target genes in mesangial cells response to glucose

Figure 4
Expression of ChREBP and its target genes in mesangial cells response to glucose

SV40 MES 13 cells were treated with 5 and 25 mM glucose for 48 h, and the levels of ChREBP were measured by real-time PCR (A) and Western blot (B). In addition, the expression levels of L-PK, FASN and SCD-1 in mesangial cells were measured by real-time PCR (C); ***P<0.001.

Figure 4
Expression of ChREBP and its target genes in mesangial cells response to glucose

SV40 MES 13 cells were treated with 5 and 25 mM glucose for 48 h, and the levels of ChREBP were measured by real-time PCR (A) and Western blot (B). In addition, the expression levels of L-PK, FASN and SCD-1 in mesangial cells were measured by real-time PCR (C); ***P<0.001.

High glucose induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in mesangial cells

To confirm the inflammatory reaction to the high glucose in mesangial cells, we detected the expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in SV40 MES 13 cells. Results showed that glucose treatment promoted mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (Figure 5A). Moreover, flow cytometry analysis showed that glucose stimulation induced significant apoptosis of SV40 MES 13 cells (Figure 5B).

High glucose induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in mesangial cells

Figure 5
High glucose induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in mesangial cells

(A) SV40 MES 13 cells were treated with 5, 15, and 50 mM glucose for 48 h, the levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) were determined by ELISA. (B) SV40 MES 13 cells were treated with 0, 5, 15, and 50 mM glucose for 48 h, cells were harvested and cell apoptosis ratio was analyzed by flow cytometry.

Figure 5
High glucose induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in mesangial cells

(A) SV40 MES 13 cells were treated with 5, 15, and 50 mM glucose for 48 h, the levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) were determined by ELISA. (B) SV40 MES 13 cells were treated with 0, 5, 15, and 50 mM glucose for 48 h, cells were harvested and cell apoptosis ratio was analyzed by flow cytometry.

ChREBP mediated inflammatory reactions in mesangial cells induced by glucose administration

To explore the role of ChREBP in the inflammatory response, we manipulated the ChREBP level in mesangial cells using RNAi method. We found that transfection with ChREBP siRNA significantly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of ChREBP in SV40 MES 13 cells (Figure 6A,B). As a result, the expression levels of TNF-α (Figure 6C), IL-1β (Figure 6D), and IL-6 (Figure 6E) were also significantly reduced in mesangial cells after transfection with ChREBP siRNA.

ChREBP mediated inflammatory reactions in mesangial cells induced by glucose administration

Figure 6
ChREBP mediated inflammatory reactions in mesangial cells induced by glucose administration

SV40 MES 13 cells were transfected with control siRNA or siRNA against ChREBP for 48 h, the mRNA (A) and protein (B) levels of ChREBP were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot assay, respectively. SV40 MES 13 cells were transfected with control siRNA or siRNA against ChREBP for 24 h and treated with 5, 15, and 50 mM glucose for additional 48 h, the levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α (C), IL-1β (D), and IL-6 (E) were determined by ELISA; **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

Figure 6
ChREBP mediated inflammatory reactions in mesangial cells induced by glucose administration

SV40 MES 13 cells were transfected with control siRNA or siRNA against ChREBP for 48 h, the mRNA (A) and protein (B) levels of ChREBP were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot assay, respectively. SV40 MES 13 cells were transfected with control siRNA or siRNA against ChREBP for 24 h and treated with 5, 15, and 50 mM glucose for additional 48 h, the levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α (C), IL-1β (D), and IL-6 (E) were determined by ELISA; **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

Discussion

ChREBP is a critical transcription factor that primarily mediates glucose homeostasis [10]. Recently, a study investigated the role of ChREBP in mesangial cells in DN. They found that treatment with high glucose increased cellular O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAcylated ChREBP in mesangial cells, which in turn augmented the protein stability, transcriptional activity, and nuclear translocation of ChREBP [11,12]. In the present study, we observed the elevated expression of ChREBP in T2DM patients, high glucose-treated mesangial cells, and diabetic mice. Additionally, the target genes of ChREBP, L-PK, FASN, and SCD-1 were also up-regulated. Therefore, these results demonstrate that ChREBP might play a critical role in the development of DN.

It is widely considered that DN is a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease [13–15]. Many inflammatory cytokines are shown to be involved in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of DN, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 [16–18]. Therefore, targeting cytokine production many be an effective therapeutic strategy against DN. Actually, the administration of anti-inflammatory activities is able to reduce the renal dysfunction and damage induced by DN [19]. In our study, the serum levels of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 were up-regulated in T2DM patients and mesangial cells. In addition, there was a positive correlation between ChREBP and TNFα, IL-1β, or IL-6. High glucose administration can increase the generation of ROS, which correlates with ATP production and apoptosis in mesangial cells [20–22]. Consistently, we observed that glucose stimulation induced significant apoptosis of SV40 MES 13 cells. To further confirm the role of ChREBP in inflammatory responses, we manipulated the ChREBP level in mesangial cells using RNAi method. Consequently, down-regulation of ChREBP suppressed the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in SV40 MES 13 cells.

There are several limitations of this study. First, we detected the expression of ChREBP in a relatively small sample size, which should be further validated in a larger cohort population. Second, the knockdown of ChREBP was only performed in renal mesangial cells, and thus the in vivo data of depletion of ChREBP were absent. In our future study, we will knockdown ChREBP to validate its role in the rat DN model. At last, the specific underlying mechanism by which ChREBP exerts its biological role in diabetes is not fully elucidated.

In summary, the present study reveals that ChREBP is elevated by the glucose in vivo or in vitro, in an association with an elevated inflammatory response. Moreover, the strategy of ChREBP inhibition reduced the inflammatory cytokines in response to high glucose. The present study demonstrates that ChREBP may be developed as a novel therapeutic target for controlling the progression of DN.

Funding

This study was supported by the Outstanding Young Talent Project of Department of Science and Technology of Jilin Provincial [20180520122JH]; and the Backbone Cultivation Project of Health Commission of Jilin Province [2017Q030].

Author Contribution

Yan Chen and Yan-Jun Wang analyzed and interpreted the results. Yan Chen wrote the manuscript. Yan Chen designed the study. Yan Chen, Yan-Jun Wang, Ying Zhao, and Jin-Cheng Wang carried out the experiments. Yan Chen, Yan-Jun Wang, Ying Zhao, and Jin-Cheng Wang performed the statistical analysis.

Competing Interests

The authors declare that there are no competing interests associated with the manuscript.

Abbreviations

     
  • ChREBP

    carbohydrate response element binding protein

  •  
  • DN

    diabetic nephropathy

  •  
  • GFR

    glomerular filtration rate

  •  
  • IL-1β

    interleukin-1β

  •  
  • IL-6

    interleukin-6

  •  
  • T2DM

    type 2 diabetes mellitus

  •  
  • TNF-α

    tumor necrosis factor-α

References

References
1
de Boer
I.H.
,
Rue
T.C.
,
Hall
Y.N.
,
Heagerty
P.J.
,
Weiss
N.S.
and
Himmelfarb
J.
(
2011
)
Temporal trends in the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease in the United States
.
JAMA
305
,
2532
2539
[PubMed]
2
Lu
Z.
,
Liu
N.
and
Wang
F.
(
2017
)
Epigenetic regulations in diabetic nephropathy
.
J. Diabetes Res.
7805058
[PubMed]
3
Saravanan
S.
and
Pari
L.
(
2016
)
Protective effect of thymol on high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in C57BL/6J mice
.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
245
,
1
11
[PubMed]
4
Sae-Lee
C.
,
Moolsuwan
K.
,
Chan
L.
and
Poungvarin
N.
(
2016
)
ChREBP regulates itself and metabolic genes implicated in lipid accumulation in beta-cell line
.
PLoS One
11
,
e147411
5
Kim
M.S.
,
Krawczyk
S.A.
,
Doridot
L.
,
Fowler
A.J.
,
Wang
J.X.
,
Trauger
S.A.
et al (
2016
)
ChREBP regulates fructose-induced glucose production independently of insulin signaling
.
J. Clin. Invest.
126
,
4372
4386
[PubMed]
6
Filhoulaud
G.
,
Guilmeau
S.
,
Dentin
R.
,
Girard
J.
and
Postic
C.
(
2013
)
Novel insights into ChREBP regulation and function
.
Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
24
,
257
268
[PubMed]
7
Kabashima
T.
,
Kawaguchi
T.
,
Wadzinski
B.E.
and
Uyeda
K.
(
2003
)
Xylulose 5-phosphate mediates glucose-induced lipogenesis by xylulose 5-phosphate-activated protein phosphatase in rat liver
.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
100
,
5107
5112
[PubMed]
8
Iizuka
K.
(
2017
)
The transcription factor carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP): A possible link between metabolic disease and cancer
.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1863
,
474
485
9
Ding
C.
,
Zhao
Y.
,
Shi
X.
,
Zhang
N.
,
Zu
G.
,
Li
Z.
et al (
2016
)
New insights into salvianolic acid A action: regulation of the TXNIP/NLRP3 and TXNIP/ChREBP pathways ameliorates HFD-induced NAFLD in rats
.
Sci. Rep.
6
,
28734
[PubMed]
10
Sato
S.
,
Jung
H.
,
Nakagawa
T.
,
Pawlosky
R.
,
Takeshima
T.
,
Lee
W.R.
et al (
2016
)
Metabolite regulation of nuclear localization of carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP): role of AMP as an allosteric inhibitor
.
J. Biol. Chem.
291
,
10515
10527
[PubMed]
11
Guinez
C.
,
Filhoulaud
G.
,
Rayah-Benhamed
F.
,
Marmier
S.
,
Dubuquoy
C.
,
Dentin
R.
et al (
2011
)
O-GlcNAcylation increases ChREBP protein content and transcriptional activity in the liver
.
Diabetes
60
,
1399
1413
[PubMed]
12
Park
M.J.
,
Kim
D.I.
,
Lim
S.K.
,
Choi
J.H.
,
Han
H.J.
,
Yoon
K.C.
et al (
2014
)
High glucose-induced O-GlcNAcylated carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) mediates mesangial cell lipogenesis and fibrosis: the possible role in the development of diabetic nephropathy
.
J. Biol. Chem.
289
,
13519
13530
[PubMed]
13
Hu
Z.B.
,
Ma
K.L.
,
Zhang
Y.
,
Wang
G.H.
,
Liu
L.
,
Lu
J.
et al (
2018
)
Inflammation activates the CXCL16 pathway to contribute to tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic nephropathy
.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
39
,
1022
1033
14
Liang
R.
,
Zhao
Q.
,
Jian
G.
et al (
2018
)
Tanshinone IIA attenuates contrast-induced nephropathy via Nrf2 activation in rats
.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem. Int. J. Exp. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol.
46
,
2616
15
Wu
R.
,
Liu
X.
,
Yin
J.
et al (
2018
)
IL-6 receptor blockade ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via inhibiting inflammasome in mice
.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
83
16
Barutta
F.
,
Bruno
G.
,
Grimaldi
S.
and
Gruden
G.
(
2015
)
Inflammation in diabetic nephropathy: moving toward clinical biomarkers and targets for treatment
.
Endocrine
48
,
730
742
[PubMed]
17
Giordano
M.
,
Ciarambino
T.
,
Castellino
P.
,
Cataliotti
A.
,
Malatino
L.
,
Ferrara
N.
et al (
2014
)
Long-term effects of moderate protein diet on renal function and low-grade inflammation in older adults with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease
.
Nutrition
30
,
1045
1049
[PubMed]
18
Zhang
M.H.
,
Feng
L.
,
Zhu
M.M.
,
Gu
J.F.
,
Jiang
J.
,
Cheng
X.D.
et al (
2014
)
The anti-inflammation effect of Moutan Cortex on advanced glycation end products-induced rat mesangial cells dysfunction and High-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy rats
.
J. Ethnopharmacol.
151
,
591
600
[PubMed]
19
Hazman
O.
and
Bozkurt
MF.
(
2015
)
Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of safranal in the reduction of renal dysfunction and damage that occur in diabetic nephropathy
.
Inflammation
38
,
1537
1545
[PubMed]
20
Wang
Y.
,
Wang
M.
,
Chen
B.
and
Shi
J.
(
2017
)
Scoparone attenuates high glucose-induced extracellular matrix accumulation in rat mesangial cells
.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
815
,
376
380
[PubMed]
21
Chen
X.
,
Wang
D.D.
,
Wei
T.
,
He
S.M.
,
Zhang
G.Y.
and
Wei
Q.L.
(
2016
)
Effects of astragalosides from Radix Astragali on high glucose-induced proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation in glomerular mesangial cells
.
Exp. Ther. Med.
11
,
2561
2566
[PubMed]
22
Zhang
H.
,
Li
A.
,
Zhang
W.
,
Huang
Z.
,
Wang
J.
and
Yi
B.
(
2016
)
High glucose-induced cytoplasmic translocation of Dnmt3a contributes to CTGF hypo-methylation in mesangial cells
.
Biosci. Rep.
36
,
e00362
This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).