Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were reported to induce the differentiation of bone marrow stem cell (BMSCs) into cells with characteristics of periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Thus SDF-1 and bFGF may play a positive role in BMSCs-mediated periodontal ligament regeneration. Here, the MTT assay was used to investigate the effect of scaffolds, SDF-1 and bFGF on BMSCs proliferation. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate gene and protein expression. Beagle dogs were used to establish an animal model of tooth reimplantation and to investigate the effects of scaffolds, BMSCs, SDF-1and bFGF on periodontal ligament regeneration. X-ray images and micro computed tomography (micro CT) were used to assess morphological changes of replanted teeth and surrounding alveolar bone. H&E staining and Masson staining were also performed. BMSCs from Beagle dogs growth on scaffolds consisted of dense structured collagens. SDF-1 and bFGF effectively promoted the differentiation of BMSCs into fibroblasts, periodontal membrane reconstruction, and cell proliferation in vitro.SDF-1 and bFGF also stimulated the expression of type I collagen, type III collagen CXCR4, and S100A4 and decrease the expression of alkaline phosphatase. In our experimental Beagle dog model of tooth extraction and replantation, application of SDF-1 and bFGF significantly elevated periodontal membrane reconstruction and thus supported the survival of replanted teeth. In conclusion, the findings from this study demonstrated that SDF-1 and bFGF enhance the process of periodontal ligament reconstruction, and provide a basis and reference for the use of stem cell tissue engineering in promoting periodontal membrane regeneration.

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