Abstract: The homeodomain-only protein homeobox (HOPX) as the smallest homeodomain protein, lacks certain conserved residues required for DNA binding. Through our literature search, we review the current understanding of HOPX in normal tissues and tumor progression. HOPX was initially identified as a critical transcription factor in various normal tissues, which interacts with serum responsive factor (SRF) or other substance to regulate normal physiological function. While HOPX was low expression and hypermethylation in tumor progression. These data indicated that HOPX may play very important role in regulating differentiation phenotype and tumor suppressive function. We predicted the prognosis of HOPX in tumors from TCGA database and discussed the downstream genes of HOPX. Understanding how HOPX is involved in the mechanisms between physical and pathological conditions could lead to novel therapeutic strategies for treatment.

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