Background: HS is a physically dysfunctional illness caused by hyperthermia. Lung, as the important place for gas-exchange and heat-dissipation organ, is often firstly to be injured. Lung injury caused by HS impairs the ventilation function of lung, which will subsequently cause damage to other tissues and organs. Nevertheless, the specific mechanism of lung injury in heat stroke is still unknown. Methods: Rat lung tissues from controls or HS models were harvested. The gene expression profile was identified by high-throughput sequencing. DEGs were calculated using R and validated by qRT-PCR. GO, KEGG and cell-enrichment were performed using DEGs. Finally, lung histopathology was accessed by H&E staining. Results: 471 genes were identified to be DEGs, of which 257 genes were up-regulated, and 214 genes were down-regulated. The most up-regulated and down-regulated DEGs were validated by qRT-PCR, which confirmed the tendency of expression. GO, KEGG and PPI-network analyses disclosed DEGs were significantly enriched in leukocyte migration, response to lipopolysaccharide, NIK/NF-kappaB signaling, response to reactive oxygen species, response to heat, and the hub genes were Tnf, Il1b, Cxcl2, Ccl2, Mmp9, Timp1, Hmox1, Serpine1, Mmp8 and Csf1, most of which were closely related to inflammagenesis and oxidative stress. Finally, cell-enrichment analysis and histopathologic analysis showed Monocytes, Megakaryotyes, and Macrophages were enriched in response to heat stress.Conclusions: The present study identified key genes, signal pathways and infiltrated-cell types in lung after heat stress, which will deepen our understanding of transcriptional response to heat stress, and might provide new ideas for the treatment of HS.

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