Purpose: Safety data on commonly used herbal medicinal products (HMPs) and marketed in Ghana is scarce. We assessed the sub-chronic toxicity of three most-patronized commercial antimalarial HMPs in Kumasi, Ghana. Method: Top-three HMPs (designated HPA, HPB and HPC) were selected after a mini-survey and sub-chronic toxicity evaluation conducted in accordance with OECD 407 guidelines. Control rats received clean water while test groups received daily adult human dose (DAHD), 5xDAHD or 10xDAHD of either HPA, HPB or HPC for 30 days. Rats were sacrificed on day 31 to obtain biochemical, haematology and histology samples for analysis. Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Turkey’s test. Results: The three HMPs produced alterations in liver morphology predominantly characterized by prominent foci of fatty changes, scattered hepatocytes with intracytoplasmic fat globules and congested central veins and sinusoids. Delicate alveolar with evidence of inflammation and foci of sloughing within rat airway were observed. Alveolar spaces were obscured by debris and inflammatory cells. HPA and HPC produced scattered intensely congested heart vessels while HPB(10) produced haemorrhage and amorphous exudates. All HMPs produced neither treatment-related deaths nor significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters, except for HPA and HPB which decreased (p<0.05) AST and HPB which elevated (p<0.05) FBG. Conclusion: Data from this study suggest the potential of the herbal products, HPA, HPB and HPC, to cause major organ-system dysfunction or damage. We advise cautious use of these products and recommend further safety evaluation in chronic toxicity models.
Sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of top-three commercial herbal anti-malarial preparations in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana
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Frank Adusei-Mensah, Carina Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Jussi Kauhanen, Isaac Tabiri Henneh, Phyllis Elsie Owusu Agyei, Patrick Kafui Akakpo, Martins Ekor; Sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of top-three commercial herbal anti-malarial preparations in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Biosci Rep BSR20192536. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20192536
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