Aim: Typical features of human osteosarcoma are highly invasive and migratory capacities. Our study aimed to investigate the roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in human osteosarcoma metastasis. Methods: GSK3β expressions in clinical osteosarcoma tissues with or without metastasis were examined by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of GSK3β, p-GSK3βSer9, and p-GSK3βTyr216 in human osteoblast cells (hFOB1.19) and human osteosarcoma cells (MG63, SaOS-2 and U2-OS) were detected by western blotting. The GSK3β activity was measured by non-radio isotopic in vitro kinase assay. Migration and invasion abilities of MG-63 cells treated with small-molecular GSK3β inhibitors were respectively examined by monolayer-based wound-healing assay and transwell assay. The mRNA expressions of GSK3β, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, phosphatase with tensin homology (PTEN), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were detected after siRNA transfection for 72 h. Meanwhile, protein expressions of GSK3β, FAK, p-FAKY397, PTEN, MMP-2, and MMP-9were measured by western blotting. Results: Clinical osteosarcoma tissues with metastasis showed higher GSK3β expressions. MG63 and U2-OS cells which were easy to occur metastasis showed significantly higher expressions and activities of GSK3β than SaOS-2 cells. Inhibition of GSK3β with small-molecular GSK3β inhibitors in MG63 cells significantly attenuated cell migration and invasion. These effects were associated with reduced expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Moreover, increased PTEN and decreased p-FAKY397 expressions were observed following GSK3b knock-down by siRNA transfection. Conclusion: GSK3β might promote osteosarcoma invasion and migration via pathways associated with PTEN and phosphorylation of FAK.

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