Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is one of the most prevalent chronic infectious diseases in children. The effective prevention and treatment are heavy burdens and study hotspots for pediatric dentists. Many studies had investigated the relationship between preterm, Low Birth Weight (LBW) and ECC; however, the results were inconsistent. This paper was conducted with an evidence-based study to figure out the relationship between preterm, LBW and ECC for the first time. After searching the database, case-control and cross-sectional studies relevant to the relationship between preterm, LBW and ECC up to December 2019 were included. The data about Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were extracted and calculated with STATA 14.0 Software. A total of 22 studies were included in this meta-analysis, 9 studies of which did not only explore the relationship between ECC with preterm, but also studied the relationship between ECC and LBW, 7 studies of which explored the relationship between preterm and ECC, and 6 studies of which studied the relationship between LBW and ECC. The meta-analysis results showed that the preterm increased the risk of ECC (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.36-1.87) significantly. There was no difference between LBW and normal birthweight in the incidence of ECC (OR=1.12, 95% CI 0.94-1.33). The meta-analysis results of adjustment OR about LBW were similar to the crude OR (OR=1.05, 95% CI 0.71-1.57). This meta-analysis indicated that preterm increased the risk of ECC significantly; however, LBW was not a risk factor for ECC.

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