To investigate the alleviating effects of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on myelosuppression of Sprague–Dawley rats with breast cancer induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX). Breast cancer on rats was triggered by intragastric gavage with 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (150 mg/kg). Then the rats with breast cancer were randomly allocated to the LIPUS group (n = 50) and the control group (n = 50). The LIPUS group was injected intraperitoneally with CTX (50 mg/kg) for 4 consecutive days and underwent LIPUS treatment at femoral metaphysis 20 minutes per day from the first day of injection for 7 consecutive days. The control group was injected with CTX (50 mg/kg) and treated with LIPUS without energy output. Blood, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, hematoxylin & eosin staining and scanning electron microscope were applied to detect the changes. The results indicated LIPUS significantly promoted the proliferation of bone marrow nucleated cells, white blood cells, IgA, IgG, and IgM in the peripheral blood (p < 0.05) without the damage to liver and kidney function simultaneously. The mechanisms may result from the LIPUS alleviation effect on bone marrow hematopoietic function through regulating cytokines such as LIPUS can increase the expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, transforming growth factor -β, and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, meanwhile LIPUS will decrease the expression of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor -α, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. LIPUS has potential to be a new adjuvant therapy method in clinic for ameliorating chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression.

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