To facilitate temperature adjustments, the testicles are located outside the body cavity. In most mammals, the temperature of the testes is lower than the body temperature to ensure the normal progression of spermatogenesis. Rising temperatures affect spermatogenesis and eventually lead to a decline in male fertility or even infertility. However, the testes are composed of different cell types, including spermatogonial stem cells, spermatocytes, spermatozoa, Leydig cells, and Sertoli cells, which have different cellular responses to heat stress. Recent studies have shown that using different drugs can relieve heat-stress-induced reproductive damage by regulating different signaling pathways. Here, we review the mechanisms by which heat stress damages different cells in testes and possible treatments.

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