Osteoarthritis (OA) is a long-term, persistent joint disorder characterized by bone and cartilage degradation, resulting in tightness, pain, and restricted movement. Current attempts in cartilage regeneration are cell-based therapies using stem cells. Multipotent stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have been used to regenerate cartilage. However, since the discovery of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in 2007, it was seen as a potential source for regenerative chondrogenic therapy as it overcomes the ethical issues surrounding the use of  ESCs and the immunological and differentiation limitations of MSCs. This literature review focuses on chondrogenic differentiation and 3D bioprinting technologies using hiPSCS, suggesting them as a viable source for successful tissue engineering. Methods: A literature search was conducted using scientific search engines, PubMed, MEDLINE, and google scholar databases with the terms “Cartilage tissue engineering” and “ stem cells” to retrieve published literature on chondrogenic differentiation and tissue engineering using MSCs, ESCs, and hiPSCs. Results: hiPSCs may provide an effective and autologous treatment for focal chondral lesions, though further research is needed to explore the potential of such technologies. Conclusions: This review has provided a comprehensive overview of these technologies and the potential applications for hiPSCs in regenerative medicine.

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