Brain metastases (BMs) usually develop in breast cancer (BC) patients. Thus, the molecular mechanisms of breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) are of great importance in designing therapeutic strategies to treat or prevent BCBM. The present study attempted to identify novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of BCBM. Two datasets (GSE125989 and GSE100534) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to find differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in cases of BC with and without brain metastasis (BM). A total of 146 overlapping DEGs, including 103 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated genes, were identified. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs were mainly enriched for functions including extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and collagen catabolic fibril organization. Using protein–protein interaction (PPI) and principal component analysis (PCA) analysis, we identified ten key genes, including LAMA4, COL1A1, COL5A2, COL3A1, COL4A1, COL5A1, COL5A3, COL6A3, COL6A2 , and COL6A1 . Additionally, COL5A1, COL4A1, COL1A1, COL6A1, COL6A2 , and COL6A3 were significantly associated with the overall survival of BC patients. Furthermore, COL6A3, COL5A1 , and COL4A1 were potentially correlated with BCBM in human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) expression. Additionally, the miR-29 family might participate in the process of metastasis by modulating the cancer microenvironment. Based on datasets in the GEO database, several DEGs have been identified as playing potentially important roles in BCBM in BC patients.