Mangiferin (2-β- d -glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-9H-xanthen-9-one), a xanthanoid, is one of the major compounds isolated from mango leaves and bark fruit. Previous studies have identified several properties of mangiferin, such as preventing microbial growth, reducing oxidative stress and helping reduce risk of diabetes. The aim of the present study is to explore the potential anti-dementia effects of Mangiferin in a senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse model. Morris water maze (MWM) test showed that mangiferin significantly improved the learning and memory retention in SAMP8 mice. In addition, mangiferin reduced the damage in hippocampal neurons and mitochondria, and decreased the expression of amyloid-β (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42); however, no influence on the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) within the brain of SAMP8 mice. Moreover, Mangiferin inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO). In conclusion, we provided evidences to show that mangiferin significantly restored the learning and memory impairment in the SAMP8 mouse model, and reduced the pathological injury in hippocampal by modulating lipid oxidation and amyloid-β deposition in the brain.