Background : Cerebral ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury is the key to fatality in cerebrovascular accident, hence further endeavor is warranted to delineate the mechanism underlying its lethal aggravation procedure. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the anti-autophagy and anti-apoptosis effects of ginkgetin via nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/p53 pathway in cerebral I/R rats. Methods : Rats were administrated 2-h occlusion of right middle cerebral artery before the 24-h reperfusion followed. There were three doses of ginkgetin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally (i.p.) after the 2-h ischemia, and Pifithrin-α (PFT-α, p53 inhibitor), SN50 (NF-κB inhibitor) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) was administered 20 min before the ischemia, respectively. Results : The neurological deficits decreased significantly with the administration of ginkgetin. The concentrations of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II and p53 were significantly decreased by PFT-α, 3-MA and ginkgetin. The concentrations of Beclin 1, damage-regulated autophagy modulator, cathepsin B and cathepsin D were significantly decreased due to the administration of PFT-α, ginkgetin and SN50. Furthermore, the concentrations of Bax and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis were significantly decreased with that of Bcl-2 being significantly increased by administration of SN50, PFT-α and ginkgetin. Conclusion : Ginkgetin can alleviate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced autophagy and apoptosis by inhibiting the NF-κB/p53 signaling pathway.
Intestinal barrier dysfunction has been implicated in the development of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome caused by the trauma-hemorrhagic shock (THS). However, the mechanisms underlying THS-induced gut barrier injury are still poorly understood. In the present study, we used the metabolomics analysis to test the hypothesis that altered metabolites might be related to the development of THS-induced barrier dysfunction in the large intestine. Under the induction of THS, gut barrier failure was characterized by injury of permeability and mucus layer, which were companied by the decreased expression of zonula occludens-1 in the colon and increased levels of inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in the serum. A total of 16 differential metabolites were identified in colonic tissues from THS-treated rats compared with control rats. These altered metabolites included dihydroxy acetone phosphate, ribose-5-phosphate, fructose, glyceric acid, succinic acid, and adenosine, which are critical intermediates or end products that are involved in pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate biosynthesis. These findings may offer important insight into the metabolic alterations in THS-treated gut injury, which will be helpful for developing effective metabolites-based strategies to prevent THS-induced gut barrier dysfunction.