Nowadays, vitamin D is known to have functions beyond bone formation, including inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting tumor apoptosis. CYP27B1 and group-specific component (GC), the main enzyme responsible for the degradation and transport of active vitamin D, play important role in many cancer-related cellular processes. Relationships between CYP27B1 and GC polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility have been widely investigated, whereas the results are inconsistent. We strictly searched EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, WanFang and CNKI electronic databases for relevant studies exploring the associations of GC (rs4588 and rs7041) and CYP27B1 (rs4646537, rs3782130) polymorphisms with cancer risks according to search strategy. Thirty-two studies published in 13 articles involving 15713 cases and 17304 controls were included. Our analyses suggested that rs4588 and rs7041 polymorphisms were significantly associated with overall cancer risk. Stratification analyses of ethnicity indicated that rs4588 polymorphism significantly increased cancer risk in Caucasians and Asians, while rs7041 polymorphism significantly increased cancer risk in Asians. When studies were stratified by cancer type, our results indicated that rs4588 significantly increased the risk of breast cancer and digestive system tumor, but not in prostate cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, while rs7041 significantly increased the risk of non-small cell lung cancer. Above associations were noteworthy findings as evaluated by false-positive report probabilities (FPRPs). There were no associations of rs4646537 and rs3782130 with overall cancer risks. Associations between CYP27B1 and GC polymorphisms and cancer risks were examined, and additional large samples are necessary to validate our results.