Nucleus pulposus (NP) cell senescence is involved in disc degeneration. The in situ osmolarity within the NP region is an important regulator of disc cell’s biology. However, its effects on NP cell senescence remain unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of hyper-osmolarity on NP cell senescence. Rat NP cells were cultured in the in situ -osmolarity medium and hyper-osmolarity medium. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was added along with the medium to investigate the role of oxidative injury. Cell cycle, cell proliferation, senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity, telomerase activity, expression of senescence markers (p16 and p53) and matrix molecules (aggrecan and collagen II) were tested to assess NP cell senescence. Compared with the in situ -osmolarity culture, hyper-osmolarity culture significantly decreased cell proliferation and telomerase activity, increased SA-β-Gal activity and cell fraction in the G 0 /G 1 phase, up-regulated expression of senescence markers (p16 and p53) and down-regulated expression of matrix molecules (aggrecan and collagen II), and increased intracellular ROS accumulation. However, addition of NAC partly reversed these effects of hyper-osmolarity culture on cellular senescence and decreased ROS content in NP cells. In conclusion, a hyper-osmolarity culture promotes NP cell senescence through inducing oxidative stress injury. The present study provides new knowledge on NP cell senescence and helps us to better understand the mechanism of disc degeneration.
Silicosis is a lethal pneumoconiosis disease characterized by chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis. The present study was to explore the effect of against crystalline silica (CS)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A total of 138 wild-type C57BL/6J mice were divided into control and experimental groups, and killed on month 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Different doses of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were gavaged to the mice after CS instillation to observe the effect of NAC on CS induced pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation. The pulmonary injury was evaluated with Hematoxylin and eosin/Masson staining. Reactive oxygen species level was analyzed by DCFH-DA labeling. Commercial ELISA kits were used to determine antioxidant activity (T-AOC, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-6). The expression of oxidising enzymes (NOX2, iNOS, SOD2, and XO) were detected by real time PCR. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed to examine epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related markers. The mice treated with NAC presented markedly reduced CS-induced pulmonary injury and ameliorated CS-induced pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation. The level of malondialdehyde was reduced, while the activities of GSH-PX, SOD, and T-AOC were markedly enhanced by NAC. We also found the down-regulation of oxidising enzymes (NOX2, iNOS, SOD2, and XO) after NAC treatment. Moreover, E-cadherin expression was increased while vimentin and Cytochrome C expressions were decreased by NAC. These encouraging findings suggest that NAC exerts pulmonary protective effects in CS-induced pulmonary fibrosis and might be considered as a promising agent for the treatment of silicosis.
Determining drug-metabolizing enzyme activities on an individual basis is an important component of personalized medicine, and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a principal role in hepatic drug metabolism. Herein, a simple method for predicting the major CYP-mediated drug clearance in vitro and in vivo is presented. Ten CYP-mediated drug metabolic activities in human liver microsomes (HLMs) from 105 normal liver samples were determined. The descriptive models for predicting the activities of these CYPs in HLMs were developed solely on the basis of the measured activities of a smaller number of more readily assayed CYPs. The descriptive models then were combined with the Conventional Bias Corrected in vitro – in vivo extrapolation method to extrapolate drug clearance in vivo. The V max , K m , and CL int of six CYPs (CYP2A6, 2C8, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4/5) could be predicted by measuring the activities of four CYPs (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, and 2C19) in HLMs. Based on the predicted CL int , the values of CYP2A6-, 2C8-, 2D6-, 2E1-, and 3A4/5-mediated drug clearance in vivo were extrapolated and found that the values for all five drugs were close to the observed clearance in vivo . The percentage of extrapolated values of clearance in vivo which fell within 2-fold of the observed clearance ranged from 75.2% to 98.1%. These findings suggest that measuring the activity of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, and 2C19 allowed us to accurately predict CYP2A6-, 2C8-, 2D6-, 2E1-, and 3A4/5-mediated activities in vitro and in vivo and may possibly be helpful for the assessment of an individual’s drug metabolic profile.