In the present study, we investigated the potential effects of Isorhamnetin on the growth and metastasis of A549 human lung cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. Treatment with Isorhamnetin exhibited a dose- and time-dependent inhibition on A549 cell proliferation. Furthermore, the cell adhesion and Transwell assay showed that treatment with Isorhamnetin (2.5, 5, and 10 μM) for 48 h resulted in a significant inhibition effect on cell adhesion, invasion and migration of A549 cells, depending on concentration, which was associated with the suppression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity and protein expression. Moreover, Isorhamnetin effectively suppressed the expressions of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, as evidenced by the down-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin and snail, as well as up-regulation of E-cadherin protein expression. Additionally, these inhibitions were mediated by interrupting AKT/ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Taken together, the results of the current study demonstrated that Isorhamnetin may become a good anti-metastastic agent against lung cancer A549 cell line by the suppression of EMT via interrupting Akt/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum ( T. pallidum ) infection is accompanied by inflammatory injury of tissue, and has a worldwide distribution and increasing incidence over the past decade. Tp17 has been reported to be a strong membrane immunogen, and was initially observed to play a role in inflammation during syphilis, reacting intensely with human syphilitic sera. We therefore used recombinant Tp17 (rTp17) as a stimulator in our study. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that microRNA (miRNA)-containing exosomes have emerged as a potential effective therapeutic target for many diseases. However, the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of miR-216a-5p in syphilis pathogenesis remain unknown. Our study first identified dramatically decreased miR-216a-5p in plasma of syphilis patients compared with the healthy control, which was negatively correlated with the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Moreover, endothelial cells treated with miR-216a-5p-containing exosomes significantly attenuated the rTp17-induced inflammatory response. More importantly, we identified that miR-216a-5p could bind to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (TLR4), and overexpression of TLR4 largely rescued the miR-216a-5p-mediated suppression of rTp17-induced inflammatory cytokine production and the TLR4-MYD88 signaling pathway. Thus, our results reveal a novel role of miR-216a-5p-containing exosomes in endothelial cells, implying a potential therapeutic target for inflammation in syphilis patients.
Our aim is to investigate whether or not the breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 ( BRMS1 ) gene expression is directly linked to clinico-pathological features of breast cancer. Following a stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, case–control studies with associations between BRMS1 and breast cancer were selected from articles obtained by way of searches conducted through an electronic database. All statistical analyses were performed with Stata 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, U.S.A.). Ultimately, 1,263 patients with breast cancer were found in a meta-analysis retrieved from a total that included 12 studies. Results of our meta-analysis suggested that BRMS1 protein in breast cancer tissues was significantly lower in comparison with normal breast tissues (odds ratio, OR = 0.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04–0.15). The BRMS1 protein in metastatic breast cancer tissue was decreased than from that was found in non-metastatic breast cancer tissue (OR = 0.20, 95%CI = 0.13–0.29), and BRMS1 protein in tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages 1 and 2 was found to be higher than TNM stages 3 and 4 (OR = 4.62, 95%CI = 2.77–7.70). BRMS1 protein in all three major types of breast cancer was lower than that of control tissues respectively. We also found strong correlations between BRMS1 mRNA levels and TNM stage and tumor size. The results our meta-analysis showed that reduction in BRMS1 expression level was linked directly to clinico-pathological features of breast cancer significantly; therefore, suggesting the loss of expression or reduced levels of BRMS1 is potentially a strong indicator of the metastatic capacity of breast cancer with poor prognosis.