The steadily increasing epidemic of obesity continues at alarming rates, is an important public health problem, and expression changes of S100A16 and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1(11β-HSD1) is attributable to the adipocyte differentiation. In our previous study, we found that 11β-HSD1 protein expression increased in S100A16-overexpressed 3T3-L1 cell model. In order to further investigate the relationship between S100A16 and 11β-HSD1, and the molecular mechanisms of S100A16-induced adipogenesis, we constructed S100A16 transgenic and knockout mouse, and S100A16-overexpressed 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell. Using S100A16 transgenic (S100A16 Tg/+ ) mice fed with normal fat diet (NFD) and high fat diet (HFD) diet model, we evaluated the effect of S100A16 on adipogenesis, expression of 11β-HSD1, and RNA sequencing and quantification of gene expression. Using the 3T3-L1 cell model, we examined the effect of S100A16 and 11β-HSD1 on pre-adipocyte differentiation, and cell signaling events of 11β-HSD1 overexpression induced by S100A16. We found that when compared with C57BL/6 mice, overexpression of S100A16 under the condition of HFD increased lipid content in WAT and fat infiltration in hepatocytes, 11β-HSD1 protein expression increased along with S100A16. Elevated S100A16 and 11β-HSD1 expression promoted adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overexpression of S100A16 inhibited the degradation of 11β-HSD1. We conclude that S100A16-induced adipogenesis is associated with up-regulation of 11β-HSD1.