Hepatoblastoma is a malignant tumor in the liver of children that generally occurs at the age of 2–3 years. There have been ample evidence from the preclinical as well as clinical studies suggesting the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in hepatoblastoma, which is mainly attributed to the somatic mutations in the exon 3 of β-catenin gene. There is increased translocation of β-catenin protein from the cell surface to cytoplasm and nucleus and intracellular accumulation is directly linked to the severity of the cancer. Accordingly, the alterations in β-catenin and its target genes may be used as markers in the diagnosis and prognosis of pediatric live tumors. Furthermore, scientists have reported the therapeutic usefulness of inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in hepatoblastoma and this inhibition of signaling has been done using different methods including short interfering RNA (siRNA), miRNA and pharmacological agents. Wnt/β-catenin works in association with other signaling pathways to induce the development of hepatoblastoma including Yes-associated protein (YAP)1 (YAP-1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) 1 (mTOR-1), SLC38A1, glypican 3 (GPC3), nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), epidermal growth factor receptor, ERK1/2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), regenerating islet-derived 1 and 3 α (REG1A and 3A), substance P (SP)/neurokinin-1 receptor and PARP-1. The present review describes the key role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the development of hepatoblastoma. Moreover, the role of other signaling pathways in hepatoblastoma in association with Wnt/β-catenin has also been described.
Hematopoietic pre-B cell leukemia transcription factor (PBX)-interacting protein (RRBP1) has been shown to participate in various aspects of malignancies. The clinical significance of RRBP1 and its involvement in the epithelial ovarian cancer have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of RRBP1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and its relationship with clinical characteristics and prognosis. We evaluated the mRNA and protein expression levels of RRBP1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting ( n =45). Immunohistochemistry and data analysis were used to examine the relationship between the expression level of RRBP1 and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. RRBP1 was highly expressed in EOC ( P <0.001). The specimens were obtained from 108 patients undergoing surgery to treat epithelial ovarian cancer. RRBP1 expression was obviously related to Federation International of Gynecologie and Obstetrigue (FIGO) stage ( P <0.001), histological grade ( P =0.021), histological type ( P =0.004), and lymph node metastasis ( P =0.012) but was not related to patient age ( P =0.385) or preoperative carbohydrate antigen125 (CA125) level ( P =0.238). Univariate analysis showed that the prognosis of the epithelial ovarian cancer patients was related to the age of the patients, the FIGO stage, and the expression level of RRBP1 ( P <0.05). Patients with higher RRBP1 expression had significantly worse overall survival (OS) ( P =0.003) and disease-free survival (DFS) ( P <0.001). Multivariate survival analysis proved that RRBP1 was an independent predictor of OS ( P =0.003) and DFS ( P <0.001). RRBP1 plays an important role in predicting the prognosis of EOC. These results show that RRBP1 is a potential target for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Tripartite motif containing 44 (TRIM44) has been reported to be up-regulated in multiple aggressive malignant tumors. However, its expression status and clinical significance in cervical cancer remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of TRIM44 expression and the prognosis in patients with cervical cancer (CC). Fresh frozen tissues from 5 samples of CC and 4 normal cervical tissues were analyzed for TRIM44 expression using RT- PCR and Western blot analysis. 122 paraffin-embedded surgical specimens from patients with CC were collected for an immunohistochemistry. TRIM44 expression was found to be significantly up-regulated in cervical cancer specimens compared with adjacent normal tissues ( P <0.001). Statistical analysis showed that TRIM44 expression was significantly correlated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, histological grade and lymph node metastasis, but not with age, histological type, and tumor size. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis suggested that high TRIM44 expression was associated with poor prognosis. Patients highly expressing TRIM44 have significantly shorter overall survival (OS) ( P =0.006) and disease-free survival (DFS) ( P =0.002). Furthermore, multivariate Cox analysis showed TRIM44 was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis. Our study demonstrated that TRIM44 expression contributes to the progression of cervical cancer, and could be used as a marker of clinical diagnosis and prognosis of patients with cervical cancer.