Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic articular synovial inflammatory disease. The precise etiology underlying the pathogenesis of RA remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of curcumin analog FM0807 (curcumin salicylate monoester, 2-hydroxy-, 4-[(1E,6E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dioxo-1,6-heptadien-1-yl]-2-methoxyphenyl ester) on experimental RA and investigate its possible mechanisms of action. Method: Rats with Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis (AIA) were administered aspirin (0.1 mmol.kg −1 ), curcumin (0.1 mmol.kg −1 ), FM0807 (0.1, 0.2 mmol.kg −1 ) and vehicle via gastric gavage, from days 7 to 21, once daily. The hind paw volume and arthritis index (AI) were measured, and radiographic and histological examinations were performed. Twenty-one days later, the animals were killed and left ankle joints were removed to measure protein expression of the elements of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by Western blot analysis. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to measure synovial fluid levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and IL-10. Results: Compared with AIA group, FM0807 reduced the AI and swelling of the injected hind paw in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited increases in inflammatory cell infiltration, pannus formation and cartilage destruction. FM0807 also potently attenuated the increase in the expression of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in synovial fluid, while IL-10 levels were also elevated. FM0807 significantly suppressed phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38MAPK, inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK), IκB and NF-κB p65 protein, (all P <0.05), which displayed more potential effects compared with those of the aspirin and curcumin groups. Conclusion: FM0807 exerts its therapeutic effects on RA by inhibiting cartilage degeneration. FM0807 treatment might be an effective therapeutic approach for RA.
Purpose: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response caused by infection. Curcumin is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. FM0807, a curcumin derivative, was investigated in the present study to determine its effect on cytokines and the possible molecular mechanism. Main methods: The experiments were carried out in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ELISA, Griess assays, fluorescence-based quantitative PCR, flow cytometric analysis, 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) experiments, and Western blotting were carried out to assess the potential effects of FM0807 on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Significant findings: FM0807 had no cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, pretreatment with FM0807 inhibited the inflammatory factor tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the protein and gene levels. FM0807 also inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. In addition, the activation of the ROS/JNK (c-jun NH 2 -terminal kinase)/p53 signaling pathway was inhibited by FM0807 in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro . Conclusion: FM0807 has anti-inflammatory activity in vitro , which suggests a potential clinical application in sepsis. The anti-inflammatory activity of FM0807 may be mediated by the ROS/JNK/p53 signaling pathway.