2′- O ,4′- C -methylene-linked ribonucleotide derivatives, named LNA (locked nucleic acid) and BNA (bridged nucleic acid) are nucleic acid analogoues that have shown high-affinity recognition of DNA and RNA, and the employment of LNA oligomers for antisense activity, gene regulation and nucleic acid diagnostics seems promising. Here we show kinetic and thermodynamic results on the interaction of a series of 10 bases long LNA–DNA mixmers, gabmers as well as full length LNA's with the complementary DNA, RNA and LNA oligonucleotides in the presence and absence of 10 mM Mg 2+ - ions. Our results show no significant differences in the reaction thermodynamics and kinetics between the LNA species, only a tendency to stronger duplex formation with the gabmer and mixmer. Introduction of a few LNA's thus may be a better strategy, than using full length LNA's to obtain an oligonucleotide that markedly increases the strength of duplexes formed with the complementary DNA and RNA.
The kinetics of the interaction of bovine folate binding protein and folate at pH 7.4 and 5.0 were followed by measuring the changes of the intrinsic protein fluorescence intensity using the stopped-flow technique, which enables the study of reactions from the millisecond time-range. Our results immediately reject a simple one-step binding model, which requires a linear dependence of the observed rate constant on the concentration of the ligand. Thus, we are able to conclude that at pH 5.0 the interaction occurs in two steps and at pH 7.4 in three steps. Changes of fluorescence spectra at equilibrium were used to estimate the overall binding constants. Comparative studies on the binding of folate to human albumin are also reported.