Background : Cerebral ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury is the key to fatality in cerebrovascular accident, hence further endeavor is warranted to delineate the mechanism underlying its lethal aggravation procedure. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the anti-autophagy and anti-apoptosis effects of ginkgetin via nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/p53 pathway in cerebral I/R rats. Methods : Rats were administrated 2-h occlusion of right middle cerebral artery before the 24-h reperfusion followed. There were three doses of ginkgetin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally (i.p.) after the 2-h ischemia, and Pifithrin-α (PFT-α, p53 inhibitor), SN50 (NF-κB inhibitor) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) was administered 20 min before the ischemia, respectively. Results : The neurological deficits decreased significantly with the administration of ginkgetin. The concentrations of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II and p53 were significantly decreased by PFT-α, 3-MA and ginkgetin. The concentrations of Beclin 1, damage-regulated autophagy modulator, cathepsin B and cathepsin D were significantly decreased due to the administration of PFT-α, ginkgetin and SN50. Furthermore, the concentrations of Bax and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis were significantly decreased with that of Bcl-2 being significantly increased by administration of SN50, PFT-α and ginkgetin. Conclusion : Ginkgetin can alleviate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced autophagy and apoptosis by inhibiting the NF-κB/p53 signaling pathway.
Background and objective: Deregulation of the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) can lead to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies have shown that many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of APP are associated with the development of AD. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of APP expression, we believe that the APP 3′UTR polymorphism may affect the regulation of APP expression in miRNAs. Results : The levels of miR-101-3p, miR-153-3p, miR-144-3p, miR-381-3p, and miR-383-5p in plasma of patients with AD were significantly lower than those in the control group. The APP -534G/A site A allele was a protective factor for AD risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.700, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.573–0.840, P <0.001). The APP -369C/G site variation was not associated with AD risk. The APP -118C/A site A allele was a protective factor for AD (adjusted OR = 0.762, 95% CI: 0.639–0.897, P =0.001). The APP -534G/A site mutation affects the regulation of APP protein expression by miR-101-3p, miR-144-3p, miR-153-3p, and miR-381-3p, and the mutation of the APP -118C/A site affects miR-101-3p, miR-144-3p, miR-153-3p, and miR-383-5p regulation of APP expression. Conclusion: APP 3′UTR polymorphisms can affect the regulation of APP expression by miRNAs and thus affect the occurrence of AD.
Human osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant of bone, and often occurs in adolescents. However, molecular mechanism of this disease remains unclear. In the present study, we found that the level of Rhotekin 2 (RTKN2) was up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. In addition, silencing of RTKN2 of human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS, inhibited proliferation, and induced G 1 phase cell cycle arrest via reducing the level of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Furthermore, RTKN2 knockdown in the U2OS cells induced apoptosis by increasing the level of Bax and decreasing the level of Bcl2. These results suggested that RTKN2 is involved in the progression of human osteosarcoma, and may be a potential therapeutic target.