Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic articular synovial inflammatory disease. The precise etiology underlying the pathogenesis of RA remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of curcumin analog FM0807 (curcumin salicylate monoester, 2-hydroxy-, 4-[(1E,6E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dioxo-1,6-heptadien-1-yl]-2-methoxyphenyl ester) on experimental RA and investigate its possible mechanisms of action. Method: Rats with Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis (AIA) were administered aspirin (0.1 mmol.kg −1 ), curcumin (0.1 mmol.kg −1 ), FM0807 (0.1, 0.2 mmol.kg −1 ) and vehicle via gastric gavage, from days 7 to 21, once daily. The hind paw volume and arthritis index (AI) were measured, and radiographic and histological examinations were performed. Twenty-one days later, the animals were killed and left ankle joints were removed to measure protein expression of the elements of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by Western blot analysis. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to measure synovial fluid levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and IL-10. Results: Compared with AIA group, FM0807 reduced the AI and swelling of the injected hind paw in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited increases in inflammatory cell infiltration, pannus formation and cartilage destruction. FM0807 also potently attenuated the increase in the expression of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in synovial fluid, while IL-10 levels were also elevated. FM0807 significantly suppressed phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38MAPK, inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK), IκB and NF-κB p65 protein, (all P <0.05), which displayed more potential effects compared with those of the aspirin and curcumin groups. Conclusion: FM0807 exerts its therapeutic effects on RA by inhibiting cartilage degeneration. FM0807 treatment might be an effective therapeutic approach for RA.
Significant challenges to develop selective and effective pharmacological inhibitors for important oncoproteins like RAS continue impeding the success to treat cancers driven by such mutations. In the present study, the ABT263 and axitinib combination imposed synergistic effects on RAS -mutant colon cancer cells. The combination inhibited in vitro and in vivo growth of the cancer cells by enhancing apoptosis. Furthermore, AKT and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways were slightly down-regulated by the combination in KRAS -mutant colon cancer cells. The current results indicate that oncogene addiction can be targeted for therapy in colon cancer cells harboring the RAS -mutant. Therefore, targeting oncogene addiction can be a viable strategy for treating refractory cancers driven by important oncogenes, such as KRAS , which are otherwise difficult to be targeted by small molecules.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs non-toxic dyes called photosensitizers (PSs), which absorb visible light to give the excited singlet state, followed by the long-lived triplet state that can undergo photochemistry. In the presence of ambient oxygen, reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals are formed that are able to kill cancer cells, inactivate microbial pathogens and destroy unwanted tissue. Although there are already several clinically approved PSs for various disease indications, many studies around the world are using animal models to investigate the further utility of PDT. The present review will cover the main groups of animal models that have been described in the literature. Cancer comprises the single biggest group of models including syngeneic mouse/rat tumours that can either be subcutaneous or orthotopic and allow the study of anti-tumour immune response; human tumours that need to be implanted in immunosuppressed hosts; carcinogen-induced tumours; and mice that have been genetically engineered to develop cancer (often by pathways similar to those in patients). Infections are the second biggest class of animal models and the anatomical sites include wounds, burns, oral cavity, ears, eyes, nose etc. Responsible pathogens can include Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. A smaller and diverse group of miscellaneous animal models have been reported that allow PDT to be tested in ophthalmology, atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, dermatology and wound healing. Successful studies using animal models of PDT are blazing the trail for tomorrow's clinical approvals.