Bladder cancer (BC) is the ninth most common malignancy throughout the world. The molecular mechanisms of this disease remain largely unclear. The glycolytic enzyme enolase 1 (ENO1) has been shown to regulate the development of various cancers. However, the significance of ENO1 in BC is underdetermined. In this study, we found that ENO1 was highly expressed in BC tissues and cells. High expression of ENO1 was associated with the poor survival of BC patients. Using lentivirus-mediated knockdown and over-expression, we revealed that ENO1 was critical for the growth and proliferation of BC cells. ENO1 over-expression also promoted the proliferation of SV-HUC-1 cells. At the molecular level, the cell cycle and apoptosis related genes were regulated by ENO1. β-catenin expression was positively regulated by ENO1. Furthermore, ectopic expression of β-catenin reversed the effect of ENO1 knockdown on T24 cell proliferation and growth. Opposite results were observed in β-catenin knockdown T24 cells. Our findings suggested that ENO1 functioned as an oncogene in BC through regulating cell cycle, apoptosis and β-catenin. Targeting ENO1/β-catenin cascade may benefit for BC patients.