Macrosomia or fetal obesity is a frequent complication of pregnancy in diabetes mellitus. Several alterations observed in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in macrosomic infants of diabetic mothers are thought to be a consequence of maternal hyperglycaemia leading to fetal hyperinsulinaemia. Macrosomic infants of diabetic mothers are prone to the development of glucose intolerance, obesity and diabetes during childhood and adulthood. Furthermore, increasing evidence is accumulating regarding the importance of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the reduction of plasma lipids and hyperglycaemia. In this review article, we shed light on the abnormalities in lipid metabolism in macrosomia. We also raise the question of the possible beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs in diabetic pregnancy and in the prevention and treatment of long-term metabolic abnormalities associated with macrosomia.

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