Dietary factors have been implicated in the difference in the risk of cardiovascular disease observed between populations. However, clinical trials and mechanistic studies of dietary modification are difficult to undertake, and the data set on dietary intervention for cardiovascular disease is now much smaller than that for pharmacological interventions. Moreover, the precise mechanism by which dietary modification might alter the risk of cardiovascular disease is uncertain. In this issue of Clinical Science, Ambring and co-workers investigate the effect of a Mediterranean-inspired diet on endothelial function and lipid fractions.

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