In a cross-sectional study, oxidative stress in high vascular disease risk groups, ESRD (end-stage renal disease) and Type I diabetes, was assessed by measuring plasma protein carbonyls and comparing antioxidant capacity of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) as pertaining to PON1 (paraoxonase 1) activity and in vitro removal of LPO (lipid peroxides). ESRD subjects on haemodialysis (n=22), Type I diabetes subjects (n=20) without vascular complications and healthy subjects (n=23) were compared. Plasma protein carbonyls were higher in ESRD patients [0.16 (0.050) nmol/mg of protein; P=0.001; value is mean (SD)] relative to subjects with Type I diabetes [0.099 (0.014) nmol/mg of protein] and healthy subjects [0.093 (0.014) nmol/mg of protein]. Plasma PON1 activity, with and without correction for HDL-cholesterol, was lower in diabetes but did not differ in ESRD compared with healthy subjects. Plasma PON1 activity, without correction for HDL, did not differ between the three groups. In ESRD, plasma PON1 activity and plasma protein carbonyl concentrations were inversely related (r=−0.50, P<0.05). In an in vitro assay, LPO removal by HDL in ESRD subjects was greater than HDL from healthy subjects (P<0.01), whereas HDL from patients with Type I diabetes was less effective (P<0.01). Efficacy of LPO removal was unrelated to plasma PON1 activity, in vitro glycation or mild oxidation, but was impaired by marked oxidation and glycoxidation. Protein carbonyl levels are increased in ESRD but not in complication-free Type I diabetes. HDL antioxidant function is increased in ESRD, perhaps a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress, but is lower in Type I diabetes. HDL dysfunction is related to glycoxidation rather than glycation or PON1 activity.
Oxidative stress and high-density lipoprotein function in Type I diabetes and end-stage renal disease
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George KALOGERAKIS, Arthur M. BAKER, Steve CHRISTOV, Kevin G. ROWLEY, Karen DWYER, Christine WINTERBOURN, James D. BEST, Alicia J. JENKINS; Oxidative stress and high-density lipoprotein function in Type I diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 June 2005; 108 (6): 497–506. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20040312
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