In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that the extra-renal effects of aldosterone play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world, and MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) antagonism is a potential preventative therapy for patients at risk of both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. This protective effect of MR antagonism appears to occur at the level of the cerebral vasculature and may be related to the expression and activation of the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and the degree of vessel wall collagen deposition.

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