FCHL (familial combined hyperlipidaemia) is a highly prevalent genetic lipid disorder that accounts for a substantial number of premature cardiovascular events. To date, FCHL has been complicated by the different lipid phenotypes that are present within one family and one individual patient over time. In the present study, we hypothesized that a parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol can explain this so-called ‘multiple-type hyperlipidaemia’ in FCHL. Our hypothesis was tested in two well-documented FCHL cohorts [Maastricht (n=145) and Nijmegen (n=299)] that were followed over a 5-year interval. Three groups were constructed depending on plasma triacylglycerols: group A (individuals with both measurements below 1.5 mmol/l), group B (one measurement below and one measurement above 1.5 mmol/l) and group C (both measurement above 1.5 mmol/l). In both male, but not female, cohorts, a significant positive relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol was observed in group A (P=0.02 for Maastricht cohort and P=0.001 for the Nijmegen cohort), a significant negative relationship in group C (P=0.01 for Maastricht cohort and P=0.02 for the Nijmegen cohort), and a relationship intermediate to group A and C in group B. In contrast, both apoB (apolipoprotein B) levels and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease were related with plasma triacylglycerols in a more linear fashion. In conclusion, a parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol explains the ‘multiple-type hyperlipidaemia’ in FCHL. In addition, the linear relationship between triacylglycerols and both apoB levels and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease substantiate the use of apoB instead of LDL-cholesterol in the diagnosis of FCHL and the prediction of cardiovascular disease.
Parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol in familial combined hyperlipidaemia: the multiple-type hyperlipidaemia explained?
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Martijn C. G. J. Brouwers, Jacqueline de Graaf, Marleen M. J. van Greevenbroek, Anna M. Georgieva, Carla J. H. van der Kallen, Ewoud ter Avest, Coen D. A. Stehouwer, Anton F. Stalenhoef, Tjerk W. A. de Bruin; Parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol in familial combined hyperlipidaemia: the multiple-type hyperlipidaemia explained?. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 March 2008; 114 (5): 393–401. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20070314
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