LYH (lymphocytic hypophysitis) is an autoimmune disease of the pituitary gland which can present with varying degrees of pituitary hormonal impairment and/or with symptoms related to pituitary enlargement. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and the role of organ-specific and antipituitary antibodies as potential markers of LYH. In addition, although the mechanisms underlying LYH are not completely understood, the role of prolactin, which plays an important part in maintaining immune system homoeostasis and is increased in the disease, is considered.

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