Over the last few years, it has become obvious that obesity and insulin resistance are linked by a variety of proteins secreted by adipocytes. Visfatin/PBEF (pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor) has recently been identified as a novel adipokine with insulin-mimetic effects. Furthermore, an enzymatic function has been reported that reveals visfatin/PBEF as Nampt (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase; EC Moreover, reports on the structure and hormonal regulation of visfatin/PBEF/Nampt have given further insights into its potential physiological role. The present review summarizes studies on visfatin/PBEF/Nampt as a novel adipokine.

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