Hypertriacylglycerolaemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In men, we have shown that the effects of evening exercise on basal VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) metabolism are dose-dependent: a single prolonged bout of aerobic exercise [2 h at 60% of V̇O2 peak (peak oxygen consumption)] reduces fasting plasma TAG [triacylglycerol (triglyceride)] concentrations, via enhanced clearance of VLDL-TAG from the circulation, whereas the same exercise performed for 1 h has no effect on VLDL-TAG metabolism and concentration. We hypothesized that women are more sensitive to the TAG-lowering effect of exercise because they reportedly use more intramuscular TAG as an energy source during exercise, and depletion of muscle TAG stores has been linked to reciprocal changes in skeletal muscle LPL (lipoprotein lipase) activity. To test our hypothesis, we measured basal VLDL-TAG and VLDL-apoB-100 (apolipoprotein B-100), and plasma NEFA [non-esterified fatty acid (‘free fatty acid’)] kinetics, by using stable isotope-labelled tracer techniques, on the morning after a single session of evening exercise of moderate duration and intensity (1 h at 60% of V̇O2 peak) in eight sedentary pre-menopausal women (age, 28±3 years; body mass index, 27±2 kg/m2; body fat, 34±3%; values are means±S.E.M.). Compared with an equivalent period of evening rest, exercise had no effect on post-absorptive NEFA concentrations and the rate of appearance in plasma, VLDL-TAG and VLDL-apoB-100 concentrations, hepatic VLDL-TAG and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion and plasma clearance rates (all P>0.05). We conclude that, in women, as in men, a single session of exercise of moderate intensity and duration is not sufficient to bring about the alterations in VLDL metabolism that have been linked to post-exercise hypotriacylglycerolaemia.

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