Various stresses, which impair ER (endoplasmic reticulum) function, lead to an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins. ER stress triggers many rescuer responses, including a UPR (unfolded protein response). Increasing evidence has suggested that ER stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cerebral ischaemic insults), cancer, obesity and diabetes. In the present review, we consider the importance of ER stress under pathological conditions in mammals. Furthermore, we discuss the therapeutic potential for treatment targeting ER stress.

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