Childhood HTN (hypertension) has become a widely investigated topic within the last decade due to its increasing prevalence. In the present review, we examine new developments and trends that have significantly contributed to aetiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of childhood HTN. Many recent reports document an increasing prevalence of HTN, mainly essential HTN, in children worldwide. This is probably related to the increase of childhood obesity, although obesity is not the only factor. Evidence has been accumulating to suggest a rather complex interplay between obesity, uric acid level, dietary sodium intake, inflammation, inheritance and other factors, which lead to increased risk of developing HTN in childhood and adulthood. The detection and monitoring of HTN has significantly improved with the use of ABPM (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring), which allows not only for a more accurate classification and staging of HTN, but also for the calculation of more sophisticated parameters such as the AASI (ambulatory arterial stiffness index). Measurement of arterial stiffness enables assessment of arterial dysfunction, which may precede structural vascular changes evaluated by carotid intima media thickness. Sustained HTN eventually leads to end-organ damage [LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy), central nervous system], which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. New developments in childhood HTN, as outlined in the present review, will hopefully contribute to better screening and management of HTN in children.

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