Previous evidence supports the concept that increased oxidative stress may play an important role in MetS (metabolic syndrome)-related manifestations. Dietary fat quality has been proposed to be critical in oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of the MetS. In the present study, we investigated whether oxidative stress parameters are affected by diets with different fat quantity and quality during the postprandial state in subjects with the MetS. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four isoenergetic diets distinct in fat quantity and quality for 12 weeks: a high-saturated-fatty-acid (HSFA) diet, a high-mono-unsaturated-fatty-acid (HMUFA) diet and two low-fat/high-complex carbohydrate diets [supplemented with 1.24 g/day of long-chain n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LFHCC n−3) or with 1 g/day of sunflower oil high in oleic acid (LFHCC) as placebo]. The HMUFA diet enhanced postprandial GSH (reduced glutathione) levels and the GSH/GSSH (oxidized glutathione) ratio, compared with the other three diets. In addition, after the HMUFA-rich diet postprandial lipid peroxide levels, protein carbonyl concentrations, SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity and plasma H2O2 levels were lower compared with subjects adhering to the HSFA-rich diet. Both LFHCC diets had an intermediate effect relative to the HMUFA and HSFA diets. In conclusion, our data support the notion that the HMUFA diet improves postprandial oxidative stress in patients with the MetS. These findings suggest that the postprandial state is important for understanding the possible cardioprotective effects associated with mono-unsaturated dietary fat, particularly in subjects with the MetS.

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