The Noxes (NADPH oxidases) are a family of ROS (reactive oxygen species)-generating enzymes. Of the seven family members, four have been identified as important sources of ROS in the vasculature: Nox1, Nox2, Nox4 and Nox5. Although Nox isoforms can be influenced by the same stimulus and co-localize in cellular compartments, their tissue distribution, subcellular regulation, requirement for cofactors and NADPH oxidase subunits and ability to generate specific ROS differ, which may help to understand the multiplicity of biological functions of these oxidases. Nox4 and Nox5 are the newest isoforms identified in the vasculature. Nox4 is the major isoform expressed in renal cells and appear to produce primarily H2O2. The Nox5 isoform produces ROS in response to increased levels of intracellular Ca2+ and does not require the other NADPH oxidase subunits for its activation. The present review focuses on these unique Noxes, Nox4 and Nox5, and provides novel concepts related to the regulation and interaction in the vasculature, and discusses new potential roles for these isoforms in vascular biology.

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