Understanding the role of oxidative injury will allow for therapy with agents that scavenge ROS (reactive oxygen species) and antioxidants in the management of several diseases related to free radical damage. The majority of free radicals are generated by mitochondria as a consequence of the mitochondrial cycle, whereas free radical accumulation is limited by the action of a variety of antioxidant processes that reside in every cell. In the present review, we provide an overview of the mitochondrial generation of ROS and discuss the role of ROS in the regulation of endothelial and adipocyte function. Moreover, we also discuss recent findings on the role of ROS in sepsis, cerebral ataxia and stroke. These results provide avenues for the therapeutic potential of antioxidants in a variety of diseases.

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